Edu. 381 Curriculum & Instructional Design Week 2 DQ1

CCSS to Instructional Objectives

 

In order to ensure your lesson is aligned to the CCSS framework, you may have to view exemplar text from the grade band in which your instruction is going to take place.  Appendix B of the Common Core provides exemplar texts for ELA or Literacy in History/Social Studies,

common core state stanDarDs For

english Language arts & Literacy in History/social studies, science, and technical subjects

appendix B: text exemplars and sample Performance tasks

 

 

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exemplars of reading text complexity, Quality, and range & sample Performance tasks related to core standards

Selecting Text Exemplars The following text samples primarily serve to exemplify the level of complexity and quality that the Standards require all students in a given grade band to engage with. Additionally, they are suggestive of the breadth of texts that stu- dents should encounter in the text types required by the Standards. The choices should serve as useful guideposts in helping educators select texts of similar complexity, quality, and range for their own classrooms. They expressly do not represent a partial or complete reading list.

The process of text selection was guided by the following criteria:

• Complexity. Appendix A describes in detail a three-part model of measuring text complexity based on quali- tative and quantitative indices of inherent text difficulty balanced with educators’ professional judgment in matching readers and texts in light of particular tasks. In selecting texts to serve as exemplars, the work group began by soliciting contributions from teachers, educational leaders, and researchers who have experience working with students in the grades for which the texts have been selected. These contributors were asked to recommend texts that they or their colleagues have used successfully with students in a given grade band. The work group made final selections based in part on whether qualitative and quantitative measures indicated that the recommended texts were of sufficient complexity for the grade band. For those types of texts—par- ticularly poetry and multimedia sources—for which these measures are not as well suited, professional judg- ment necessarily played a greater role in selection.

• Quality. While it is possible to have high-complexity texts of low inherent quality, the work group solicited only texts of recognized value. From the pool of submissions gathered from outside contributors, the work group selected classic or historically significant texts as well as contemporary works of comparable literary merit, cultural significance, and rich content.

• Range. After identifying texts of appropriate complexity and quality, the work group applied other criteria to ensure that the samples presented in each band represented as broad a range of sufficiently complex, high- quality texts as possible. Among the factors considered were initial publication date, authorship, and subject matter.

Copyright and Permissions For those exemplar texts not in the public domain, we secured permissions and in some cases employed a conser- vative interpretation of Fair Use, which allows limited, partial use of copyrighted text for a nonprofit educational purpose as long as that purpose does not impair the rights holder’s ability to seek a fair return for his or her work. In instances where we could not employ Fair Use and have been unable to secure permission, we have listed a title without providing an excerpt. Thus, some short texts are not excerpted here, as even short passages from them would constitute a substantial portion of the entire work. In addition, illustrations and other graphics in texts are generally not reproduced here. Such visual elements are particularly important in texts for the youngest students and in many informational texts for readers of all ages. (Using the qualitative criteria outlined in Appendix A, the work group con- sidered the importance and complexity of graphical elements when placing texts in bands.)

When excerpts appear, they serve only as stand-ins for the full text. The Standards require that students engage with appropriately complex literary and informational works; such complexity is best found in whole texts rather than pas- sages from such texts.

Please note that these texts are included solely as exemplars in support of the Standards. Any additional use of those texts that are not in the public domain, such as for classroom use or curriculum development, requires independent permission from the rights holders. The texts may not be copied or distributed in any way other than as part of the overall Common Core State Standards Initiative documents.

Sample Performance Tasks The text exemplars are supplemented by brief performance tasks that further clarify the meaning of the Standards. These sample tasks illustrate specifically the application of the Standards to texts of sufficient complexity, quality, and range. Relevant Reading standards are noted in brackets following each task, and the words in italics in the task reflect the wording of the Reading standard itself. (Individual grade-specific Reading standards are identified by their strand, grade, and number, so that RI.4.3, for example, stands for Reading, Informational Text, grade 4, standard 3.)

 

 

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How to Read This Document The materials that follow are divided into text complexity grade bands as defined by the Standards: K–1, 2–3, 4–5, 6–8, 9–10, and 11–CCR. Each band’s exemplars are divided into text types matching those required in the Standards for a given grade. K–5 exemplars are separated into stories, poetry, and informational texts (as well as read-aloud texts in kindergarten through grade 3). The 6–CCR exemplars are divided into English language arts (ELA), history/social studies, and science, mathematics, and technical subjects, with the ELA texts further subdivided into stories, drama, poetry, and informational texts. (The history/social studies texts also include some arts-related texts.) Citations intro- duce each excerpt, and additional citations are included for texts not excerpted in the appendix. Within each grade band and after each text type, sample performance tasks are included for select texts.

Media Texts Selected excerpts are accompanied by annotated links to related media texts freely available online at the time of the publication of this document.

 

 

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table of contents

K–1 text exemplars ……………………………………………………………………………………………..14

stories ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….14

Minarik, Else Holmelund. Little Bear …………………………………………………………………… 14

Eastman, P. D. Are You My Mother? ……………………………………………………………………. 15

Seuss, Dr. Green Eggs and Ham. …………………………………………………………………………. 15

Lopshire, Robert. Put Me in the Zoo ………………………………………………………………….. 15

Lobel, Arnold. Frog and Toad Together ……………………………………………………………. 15

Lobel, Arnold. Owl at Home ………………………………………………………………………………… 16

DePaola, Tomie. Pancakes for Breakfast ……………………………………………………………. 17

Arnold, Tedd. Hi! Fly Guy ……………………………………………………………………………………… 17

Poetry ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

Anonymous. “As I Was Going to St. Ives.” ………………………………………………………… 17

Rossetti, Christina. “Mix a Pancake.” …………………………………………………………………. 17

Fyleman, Rose. “Singing-Time.” …………………………………………………………………………. 18

Milne, A. A. “Halfway Down.” ……………………………………………………………………………….. 18

Chute, Marchette. “Drinking Fountain.” …………………………………………………………….. 18

Hughes, Langston. “Poem.” …………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Ciardi, John. “Wouldn’t You?” ……………………………………………………………………………… 18

Wright, Richard. “Laughing Boy.” ……………………………………………………………………….. 18

Greenfield, Eloise. “By Myself.” ……………………………………………………………………………. 18

Giovanni, Nikki. “Covers.” ……………………………………………………………………………………… 18

Merriam, Eve. “It Fell in the City.” ……………………………………………………………………….. 19

Lopez, Alonzo. “Celebration.” ……………………………………………………………………………… 19

Agee, Jon. “Two Tree Toads.” ………………………………………………………………………………. 19

read-aloud stories ………………………………………………………………………………………….20

Baum, L. Frank. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz ………………………………………………….20

Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Little House in the Big Woods ………………………………………20

Atwater, Richard and Florence. Mr. Popper’s Penguins ………………………………….. 21

Jansson, Tove. Finn Family Moomintroll ……………………………………………………………. 21

Haley, Gail E. A Story, A Story ……………………………………………………………………………… 21

Bang, Molly. The Paper Crane …………………………………………………………………………….. 22

Young, Ed. Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China ………………………. 23

Garza, Carmen Lomas. Family Pictures ……………………………………………………………. 23

Mora, Pat. Tomás and the Library Lady …………………………………………………………….. 23

Henkes, Kevin. Kitten’s First Full Moon …………………………………………………………….. 24

read-aloud Poetry ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

Anonymous. “The Fox’s Foray.” …………………………………………………………………………. 25

Langstaff, John. Over in the Meadow. ………………………………………………………………. 26

Lear, Edward. “The Owl and the Pussycat.” …………………………………………………….. 27

Hughes, Langston. “April Rain Song.” ……………………………………………………………….. 27

Moss, Lloyd. Zin! Zin! Zin! a Violin ……………………………………………………………………… 27

 

 

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sample Performance tasks for stories and Poetry ……………………………………….. 28

Informational texts ………………………………………………………………………………………… 28

Bulla, Clyde Robert. A Tree Is a Plant ……………………………………………………………….. 28

Aliki. My Five Senses ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

Hurd, Edith Thacher. Starfish ………………………………………………………………………………30

Aliki. A Weed is a Flower: The Life of George Washington Carver ………………30

Crews, Donald. Truck …………………………………………………………………………………………….30

Hoban, Tana. I Read Signs ……………………………………………………………………………………30

Reid, Mary Ebeltoft. Let’s Find Out About Ice Cream …………………………………….. 31

“Garden Helpers.” National Geographic Young Explorers ……………………………… 31

“Wind Power.” National Geographic Young Explorers ……………………………………. 31

read-aloud Informational texts ……………………………………………………………………… 31

Provensen, Alice and Martin. The Year at Maple Hill Farm……………………………… 31

Gibbons, Gail. Fire! Fire! ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

Dorros, Arthur. Follow the Water from Brook to Ocean ………………………………… 32

Rauzon, Mark, and Cynthia Overbeck Bix. Water, Water Everywhere ………… 33

Llewellyn, Claire. Earthworms …………………………………………………………………………….. 33

Jenkins, Steve, and Robin Page. What Do You Do With a Tail Like This? …… 33

Pfeffer, Wendy. From Seed to Pumpkin ……………………………………………………………. 33

Thomson, Sarah L. Amazing Whales! …………………………………………………………………34

Hodgkins, Fran, and True Kelley. How People Learned to Fly ……………………….34

sample Performance tasks for Informational texts ………………………………………. 36

Grades 2–3 text exemplars ………………………………………………………………………………. 37

stories ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37

Gannett, Ruth Stiles. My Father’s Dragon. ……………………………………………………….. 37

Averill, Esther. The Fire Cat …………………………………………………………………………………. 37

Steig, William. Amos & Boris. ……………………………………………………………………………… 38

Shulevitz, Uri. The Treasure…………………………………………………………………………………. 38

Cameron, Ann. The Stories Julian Tells …………………………………………………………….. 38

MacLachlan, Patricia. Sarah, Plain and Tall ………………………………………………………. 38

Rylant, Cynthia. Henry and Mudge: The First Book of Their Adventures ……. 39

Stevens, Janet. Tops and Bottoms ……………………………………………………………………..40

LaMarche, Jim. The Raft ……………………………………………………………………………………….40

Rylant, Cynthia. Poppleton in Winter…………………………………………………………………40

Rylant, Cynthia. The Lighthouse Family: The Storm ……………………………………….. 41

Osborne, Mary Pope. The One-Eyed Giant (Book One of Tales from the Odyssey) ………………………………………………………… 41

Silverman, Erica. Cowgirl Kate and Cocoa ………………………………………………………..42

Poetry ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….43

Dickinson, Emily. “Autumn.” …………………………………………………………………………………43

Rossetti, Christina. “Who Has Seen the Wind?” ………………………………………………43

Millay, Edna St. Vincent. “Afternoon on a Hill.” …………………………………………………43

 

 

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Frost, Robert. “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” …………………………..44

Field, Rachel. “Something Told the Wild Geese.” …………………………………………….44

Hughes, Langston. “Grandpa’s Stories.” ……………………………………………………………44

Jarrell, Randall. “A Bat Is Born.” ………………………………………………………………………….44

Giovanni, Nikki. “Knoxville, Tennessee.” …………………………………………………………….44

Merriam, Eve. “Weather.” ……………………………………………………………………………………..45

Soto, Gary. “Eating While Reading.” ………………………………………………………………….45

read-aloud stories ………………………………………………………………………………………….46

Kipling, Rudyard. “How the Camel Got His Hump.” ………………………………………..46

Thurber, James. The Thirteen Clocks …………………………………………………………………46

White, E. B. Charlotte’s Web ………………………………………………………………………………. 47

Selden, George. The Cricket in Times Square ………………………………………………….. 47

Babbitt, Natalie. The Search for Delicious ………………………………………………………..48

Curtis, Christopher Paul. Bud, Not Buddy …………………………………………………………48

Say, Allen. The Sign Painter …………………………………………………………………………………49

read-aloud Poetry …………………………………………………………………………………………..49

Lear, Edward. “The Jumblies.” …………………………………………………………………………….49

Browning, Robert. The Pied Piper of Hamelin ………………………………………………….. 51

Johnson, Georgia Douglas. “Your World.” ……………………………………………………….. 52

Eliot, T. S. “The Song of the Jellicles.” ………………………………………………………………. 52

Fleischman, Paul. “Fireflies.” ……………………………………………………………………………….. 52

sample Performance tasks for stories and Poetry ……………………………………….. 53

Informational texts ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53

Aliki. A Medieval Feast …………………………………………………………………………………………. 53

Gibbons, Gail. From Seed to Plant ……………………………………………………………………..54

Milton, Joyce. Bats: Creatures of the Night ………………………………………………………54

Beeler, Selby. Throw Your Tooth on the Roof: Tooth Traditions Around the World ………………………………………………………………54

Leonard, Heather. Art Around the World …………………………………………………………. 55

Ruffin, Frances E. Martin Luther King and the March on Washington ………… 55

St. George, Judith. So You Want to Be President? …………………………………………. 55

Einspruch, Andrew. Crittercam ………………………………………………………………………….. 55

Kudlinski, Kathleen V. Boy, Were We Wrong About Dinosaurs …………………….. 56

Davies, Nicola. Bat Loves the Night …………………………………………………………………… 56

Floca, Brian. Moonshot: The Flight of Apollo 11 ………………………………………………. 56

Thomson, Sarah L. Where Do Polar Bears Live? ……………………………………………… 57

read-aloud Informational texts …………………………………………………………………….. 57

Freedman, Russell. Lincoln: A Photobiography ………………………………………………. 57

Coles, Robert. The Story of Ruby Bridges ……………………………………………………….. 58

Wick, Walter. A Drop of Water: A Book of Science and Wonder …………………. 58

Smith, David J. If the World Were a Village: A Book about the World’s People ………………………………………………………………… 59

Aliki. Ah, Music! …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59

 

 

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Mark, Jan. The Museum Book: A Guide to Strange and Wonderful Collections ………………………………………… 59

D’Aluisio, Faith. What the World Eats ………………………………………………………………..60

Arnosky, Jim. Wild Tracks! A Guide to Nature’s Footprints ……………………………60

Deedy, Carmen Agra. 14 Cows for America ………………………………………………………60

sample Performance tasks for Informational texts ………………………………………..61

Grades 4–5 text exemplars ………………………………………………………………………………. 63

stories ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63

Carroll, Lewis. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland …………………………………………… 63

Burnett, Frances Hodgson. The Secret Garden ………………………………………………. 63

Farley, Walter. The Black Stallion ………………………………………………………………………..64

Saint-Exupéry, Antoine de. The Little Prince ……………………………………………………64

Babbitt, Natalie. Tuck Everlasting……………………………………………………………………….64

Singer, Isaac Bashevis. “Zlateh the Goat.” …………………………………………………………64

Hamilton, Virginia. M. C. Higgins, the Great………………………………………………………64

Erdrich, Louise. The Birchbark House ……………………………………………………………….. 65

Curtis, Christopher Paul. Bud, Not Buddy ………………………………………………………… 65

Lin, Grace. Where the Mountain Meets the Moon ……………………………………………66

Poetry ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….66

Blake, William. “The Echoing Green.” ………………………………………………………………..66

Lazarus, Emma. “The New Colossus.” ………………………………………………………………. 67

Thayer, Ernest Lawrence. “Casey at the Bat.” ………………………………………………….. 67

Dickinson, Emily. “A Bird Came Down the Walk.” ……………………………………………68

Sandburg, Carl. “Fog.” ………………………………………………………………………………………….69

Frost, Robert. “Dust of Snow.” …………………………………………………………………………….69

Dahl, Roald. “Little Red Riding Hood and the Wolf.” ………………………………………69

Nichols, Grace. “They Were My People.” …………………………………………………………..69

Mora, Pat. “Words Free As Confetti.” …………………………………………………………………69

sample Performance tasks for stories and Poetry ………………………………………..70

Informational texts …………………………………………………………………………………………..70

Berger, Melvin. Discovering Mars: The Amazing Story of the Red Planet ……70

Carlisle, Madelyn Wood. Let’s Investigate Marvelously Meaningful Maps ……. 71

Lauber, Patricia. Hurricanes: Earth’s Mightiest Storms ……………………………………. 71

Otfinoski, Steve. The Kid’s Guide to Money: Earning It, Saving It, Spending It, Growing It, Sharing It ………………………………………………. 71

Wulffson, Don. Toys!: Amazing Stories Behind Some Great Inventions ………. 71

Schleichert, Elizabeth. “Good Pet, Bad Pet.” ……………………………………………………. 71

Kavash, E. Barrie. “Ancient Mound Builders.” …………………………………………………… 71

Koscielniak, Bruce. About Time: A First Look at Time and Clocks ……………….. 71

Banting, Erinn. England the Land ………………………………………………………………………. 72

Hakim, Joy. A History of US ………………………………………………………………………………… 72

Ruurs, Margriet. My Librarian Is a Camel: How Books Are Brought to Children Around the World ……………………………………………….. 72

Simon, Seymour. Horses ……………………………………………………………………………………… 73

 

 

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Montgomery, Sy. Quest for the Tree Kangaroo: An Expedition to the Cloud Forest of New Guinea …………………………………… 73

Simon, Seymour. Volcanoes ……………………………………………………………………………….. 74

Nelson, Kadir. We Are the Ship: The Story of Negro League Baseball ………… 74

Cutler, Nellie Gonzalez. “Kenya’s Long Dry Season.” ……………………………………… 74

Hall, Leslie. “Seeing Eye to Eye.”………………………………………………………………………… 74

Ronan, Colin A. “Telescopes.” …………………………………………………………………………….. 75

Buckmaster, Henrietta. “Underground Railroad.” ……………………………………………. 76

sample Performance tasks for Informational texts ………………………………………. 76

Grades 6–8 text exemplars ………………………………………………………………………………. 77

stories ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 77

Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women………………………………………………………………………. 77

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer ………………………………………………….. 77

L’Engle, Madeleine. A Wrinkle in Time ………………………………………………………………. 79

Cooper, Susan. The Dark Is Rising ……………………………………………………………………… 79

Yep, Laurence. Dragonwings ……………………………………………………………………………….80

Taylor, Mildred D. Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry ……………………………………………….80

Hamilton, Virginia. “The People Could Fly.”………………………………………………………80

Paterson, Katherine. The Tale of the Mandarin Ducks …………………………………….. 81

Cisneros, Sandra. “Eleven.” ………………………………………………………………………………….. 81

Sutcliff, Rosemary. Black Ships Before Troy: The Story of the Iliad………………. 81

Drama ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82

Fletcher, Louise. Sorry, Wrong Number ……………………………………………………………. 82

Goodrich, Frances and Albert Hackett. The Diary of Anne Frank: A Play ….. 83

Poetry ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 83

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth. “Paul Revere’s Ride.” ……………………………………. 83

Whitman, Walt. “O Captain! My Captain!” ……………………………………………………….. 85

Carroll, Lewis. “Jabberwocky.” ……………………………………………………………………………. 85

Navajo tradition. “Twelfth Song of Thunder.” …………………………………………………..86

Dickinson, Emily. “The Railway Train.” ……………………………………………………………….86

Yeats, William Butler. “The Song of Wandering Aengus.” …………………………….. 87

Frost, Robert. “The Road Not Taken.”……………………………………………………………….. 87

Sandburg, Carl. “Chicago.” ………………………………………………………………………………….. 87

Hughes, Langston. “I, Too, Sing America.” ……………………………………………………….. 88

Neruda, Pablo. “The Book of Questions.”…………………………………………………………. 88

Soto, Gary. “Oranges.” …………………………………………………………………………………………. 88

Giovanni, Nikki. “A Poem for My Librarian, Mrs. Long.” …………………………………. 88

sample Performance tasks for stories, Drama, and Poetry ………………………….. 89

Informational texts: english Language arts …………………………………………………..90

Adams, John. “Letter on Thomas Jefferson.” ………………………………………………….90

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass an American Slave, Written by Himself ………………………………………………………… 91

 

 

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Churchill, Winston. “Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat: Address to Parliament on May 13th, 1940.” …………………………………………………. 91

Petry, Ann. Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad ………. 92

Steinbeck, John. Travels with Charley: In Search of America ……………………….. 92

sample Performance tasks for Informational texts: english Language arts ……………………………………………………………………………………. 93

Informational texts: History/social studies …………………………………………………… 93

United States. Preamble and First Amendment to the United States Constitution. (1787, 1791) …………………………………………… 93

Lord, Walter. A Night to Remember ………………………………………………………………….. 93

Isaacson, Phillip. A Short Walk through the Pyramids and through the World of Art ……………………………………………………………………….. 93

Murphy, Jim. The Great Fire…………………………………………………………………………………94

Greenberg, Jan, and Sandra Jordan. Vincent Van Gogh: Portrait of an Artist ………………………………………………………………………………………….94

Partridge, Elizabeth. This Land Was Made for You and Me: The Life and Songs of Woody Guthrie …………………………………………………………94

Monk, Linda R. Words We Live By: Your Annotated Guide to the Constitution …………………………………………………. 95

Freedman, Russell. Freedom Walkers: The Story of the Montgomery Bus Boycott ………………………………………………… 95

Informational texts: science, mathematics, and technical subjects …………….96

Macaulay, David. Cathedral: The Story of Its Construction ……………………………96

Mackay, Donald. The Building of Manhattan …………………………………………………….96

Enzensberger, Hans Magnus. The Number Devil: A Mathematical Adventure …………………………………………………………………………….96

Peterson, Ivars and Nancy Henderson. Math Trek: Adventures in the Math Zone ………………………………………………………………………… 97

Katz, John. Geeks: How Two Lost Boys Rode the Internet out of Idaho …….. 97

Petroski, Henry. “The Evolution of the Grocery Bag.” …………………………………….98

“Geology.” U*X*L Encyclopedia of Science ………………………………………………………98

“Space Probe.” Astronomy & Space: From the Big Bang to the Big Crunch ………………………………………………………….98

“Elementary Particles.” New Book of Popular Science …………………………………..99

California Invasive Plant Council. Invasive Plant Inventory …………………………….99

sample Performance tasks for Informational texts: History/social studies & science, mathematics, and technical subjects……. 100

Grades 9–10 text exemplars ……………………………………………………………………………. 101

stories …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101

Homer. The Odyssey ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 101

Ovid. Metamorphoses …………………………………………………………………………………………. 101

Gogol, Nikolai. “The Nose.” …………………………………………………………………………………102

De Voltaire, F. A. M. Candide, Or The Optimist ……………………………………………… 103

Turgenev, Ivan. Fathers and Sons …………………………………………………………………….. 104

Henry, O. “The Gift of the Magi.” ………………………………………………………………………. 104

Kafka, Franz. The Metamorphosis ……………………………………………………………………. 105

 

 

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Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath ……………………………………………………………. 105

Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451 ………………………………………………………………………….. 106

Olsen, Tillie. “I Stand Here Ironing.” …………………………………………………………………. 106

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart …………………………………………………………………….107

Lee, Harper. To Kill A Mockingbird …………………………………………………………………….107

Shaara, Michael. The Killer Angels……………………………………………………………………. 108

Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club ……………………………………………………………………………. 108

Álvarez, Julia. In the Time of the Butterflies ………………………………………………….. 108

Zusak, Marcus. The Book Thief …………………………………………………………………………. 109

Drama ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 110

Sophocles. Oedipus Rex …………………………………………………………………………………….. 110

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Macbeth ……………………………………………….111

Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House ………………………………………………………………………………113

Williams, Tennessee. The Glass Menagerie ……………………………………………………….114

Ionesco, Eugene. Rhinoceros. ……………………………………………………………………………..115

Fugard, Athol. “Master Harold”…and the boys …………………………………………………116

Poetry ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116

Shakespeare, William. “Sonnet 73.” ……………………………………………………………………116

Donne, John. “Song.” ……………………………………………………………………………………………116

Shelley, Percy Bysshe. “Ozymandias.” ………………………………………………………………. 117

Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Raven.” ………………………………………………………………………….. 117

Dickinson, Emily. “We Grow Accustomed to the Dark.” …………………………………119

Houseman, A. E. “Loveliest of Trees.” ……………………………………………………………… 120

Johnson, James Weldon. “Lift Every Voice and Sing.” ………………………………… 120

Cullen, Countee. “Yet Do I Marvel.” ………………………………………………………………….. 120

Auden, Wystan Hugh. ”Musée des Beaux Arts.” …………………………………………… 120

Walker, Alice. “Women.” …………………………………………………………………………………….. 120

Baca, Jimmy Santiago. “I Am Offering This Poem to You.” ………………………….. 121

sample Performance tasks for stories, Drama, and Poetry …………………………..121

Informational texts: english Language arts ………………………………………………….122

Henry, Patrick. “Speech to the Second Virginia Convention.” ……………………… 122

Washington, George. “Farewell Address.” ………………………………………………………123

Lincoln, Abraham. “Gettysburg Address.” ………………………………………………………123

Lincoln, Abraham. “Second Inaugural Address.” ……………………………………………124

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. “State of the Union Address.” ………………………….124

Hand, Learned. “I Am an American Day Address.” ……………………………………….125

Smith, Margaret Chase. “Remarks to the Senate in Support of a Declaration of Conscience.” …………………………………………………………………125

King, Jr., Martin Luther. “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” ……………………………….. 127

King, Jr., Martin Luther. “I Have a Dream: Address Delivered at the March on Washington, D.C., for Civil Rights on August 28, 1963.” ………… 127

Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings ………………………………………..128

Wiesel, Elie. “Hope, Despair and Memory.”………………………………………………………128

Reagan, Ronald. “Address to Students at Moscow State University.” …………128

Quindlen, Anna. “A Quilt of a Country.” ……………………………………………………………129

 

 

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sample Performance tasks for Informational texts: english Language arts ……………………………………………………………………………………129

Informational texts: History/social studies …………………………………………………. 130

Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West …………………………………………………… 130

Connell, Evan S. Son of the Morning Star: Custer and the Little Bighorn …. 130

Gombrich, E. H. The Story of Art, 16th Edition …………………………………………………131

Kurlansky, Mark. Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World …..131

Haskins, Jim. Black, Blue and Gray: African Americans in the Civil War ……..131

Dash, Joan. The Longitude Prize ……………………………………………………………………….132

Thompson, Wendy. The Illustrated Book of Great Composers …………………….132

Mann, Charles C. Before Columbus: The Americas of 1491 ……………………………133

Informational texts: science, mathematics, and technical subjects ……………133

Euclid. Elements ……………………………………………………………………………………………………133

Cannon, Annie J. “Classifying the Stars.” …………………………………………………………135

Walker, Jearl. “Amusement Park Physics.” ……………………………………………………….136

Preston, Richard. The Hot Zone: A Terrifying True Story ……………………………….136

Devlin, Keith. Life by the Numbers …………………………………………………………………… 137

Hoose, Phillip. The Race to Save Lord God Bird …………………………………………….. 137

Hakim, Joy. The Story of Science: Newton at the Center ……………………………… 137

Nicastro, Nicholas. Circumference: Eratosthenes and the Ancient Quest to Measure the Globe ………………………………………………………….. 137

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/U.S. Department of Energy. Recommended Levels of Insulation ……………………………………………………………..138

sample Performance tasks for Informational texts: History/social studies & science, mathematics, and technical subjects……..138

Grades 11–ccr text exemplars ……………………………………………………………………….. 140

stories ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 140

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales ………………………………………………………. 140

de Cervantes, Miguel. Don Quixote …………………………………………………………………. 140

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice …………………………………………………………………….142

Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Cask of Amontillado.” …………………………………………………143

Brontë, Charlotte. Jane Eyre …………………………………………………………………………….. 144

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter ………………………………………………………..145

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment …………………………………………………. 146

Jewett, Sarah Orne. “A White Heron.” …………………………………………………………….. 146

Melville, Herman. Billy Budd, Sailor …………………………………………………………………..147

Chekhov, Anton. “Home.” ……………………………………………………………………………………148

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby …………………………………………………………….. 149

Faulkner, William. As I Lay Dying ……………………………………………………………………… 149

Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to ………………………………………………………………….. 150

Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God ………………………………….. 150

Borges, Jorge Luis. “The Garden of Forking Paths.” …………………………………….. 150

Bellow, Saul. The Adventures of Augie March ………………………………………………….151

Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye …………………………………………………………………………… 152

 

 

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Garcia, Cristina. Dreaming in Cuban ………………………………………………………………… 152

Lahiri, Jhumpa. The Namesake ………………………………………………………………………….. 152

Drama ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………153

Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet ………………………………………………..153

Molière, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin. Tartuffe ………………………………………………………..153

Wilde, Oscar. The Importance of Being Earnest ……………………………………………..154

Wilder, Thornton. Our Town: A Play in Three Acts ………………………………………….156

Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman ……………………………………………………………………156

Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun …………………………………………………………..156

Soyinka, Wole. Death and the King’s Horseman: A Play ……………………………….. 157

Poetry ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………157

Li Po. “A Poem of Changgan.” …………………………………………………………………………… 157

Donne, John. “A Valediction Forbidding Mourning.” …………………………………….. 157

Wheatley, Phyllis. “On Being Brought From Africa to America.” …………………158

Keats, John. “Ode on a Grecian Urn.” ……………………………………………………………….158

Whitman, Walt. “Song of Myself.” ……………………………………………………………………..159

Dickinson, Emily. “Because I Could Not Stop for Death.” ……………………………. 160

Tagore, Rabindranath. “Song VII.” ……………………………………………………………………. 160

Eliot, T. S. “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.” …………………………………………. 160

Pound, Ezra. “The River Merchant’s Wife: A Letter.” …………………………………….. 160

Frost, Robert. “Mending Wall.” ……………………………………………………………………………161

Neruda, Pablo. “Ode to My Suit.” ………………………………………………………………………162

Bishop, Elizabeth. “Sestina.” ……………………………………………………………………………….162

Ortiz Cofer, Judith. “The Latin Deli: An Ars Poetica.” …………………………………….162

Dove, Rita. “Demeter’s Prayer to Hades.”…………………………………………………………163

Collins, Billy. “Man Listening to Disc.” ……………………………………………………………….163

sample Performance tasks for stories, Drama, and Poetry ………………………….163

Informational texts: english Language arts ………………………………………………… 164

Paine, Thomas. Common Sense ……………………………………………………………………….. 164

Jefferson, Thomas. The Declaration of Independence …………………………………. 164

United States. The Bill of Rights (Amendments One through Ten of the United States Constitution). ……………………………………………………………..166

Thoreau, Henry David. Walden …………………………………………………………………………..167

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. “Society and Solitude.”……………………………………………..167

Porter, Horace. “Lee Surrenders to Grant, April 9th, 1865.” ………………………….168

Chesterton, G. K. “The Fallacy of Success.” ……………………………………………………..169

Mencken, H. L. The American Language, 4th Edition …………………………………….169

Wright, Richard. Black Boy …………………………………………………………………………………170

Orwell, George. “Politics and the English Language.” ……………………………………170

Hofstadter, Richard. “Abraham Lincoln and the Self-Made Myth.” ………………170

Tan, Amy. “Mother Tongue.” ……………………………………………………………………………….170

Anaya, Rudolfo. “Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry.” ……………………………….171

sample Performance tasks for Informational texts: english Language arts …………………………………………………………………………………….171

 

 

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Informational texts: History/social studies …………………………………………………..172

Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America ……………………………………………….. 172

Declaration of Sentiments by the Seneca Falls Conference ………………………… 172

Douglass, Frederick. “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?: An Address Delivered in Rochester, New York, on 5 July 1852.” ……………. 173

An American Primer. Edited by Daniel J. Boorstin ………………………………………… 175

Lagemann, Ellen Condliffe. “Education.” …………………………………………………………. 175

McPherson, James M. What They Fought For 1861–1865 ……………………………… 175

The American Reader: Words that Moved a Nation, 2nd Edition ………………… 175

Amar, Akhil Reed. America’s Constitution: A Biography ……………………………….176

McCullough, David. 1776 ……………………………………………………………………………………..176

Bell, Julian. Mirror of the World: A New History of Art ………………………………….176

FedViews by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco ……………………………. 177

Informational texts: science, mathematics, and technical subjects ……………179

Paulos, John Allen. Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences …………………………………………..179

Gladwell, Malcolm. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference …………………………………………………………………………….179

Tyson, Neil deGrasse. “Gravity in Reverse: The Tale of Albert Einstein’s ‘Greatest Blunder.’” ………………………………………179

Calishain, Tara, and Rael Dornfest. Google Hacks: Tips & Tools for Smarter Searching, 2nd Edition ……………………………………… 180

Kane, Gordon. “The Mysteries of Mass.” …………………………………………………………. 180

Fischetti, Mark. “Working Knowledge: Electronic Stability Control.” …………..181

U.S. General Services Administration. Executive Order 13423: Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management ………………………………………………………………….181

Kurzweil, Ray. “The Coming Merger of Mind and Machine.” …………………………182

Gibbs, W. Wayt. “Untangling the Roots of Cancer.” ……………………………………….182

Gawande, Atul. “The Cost Conundrum: Health Care Costs in McAllen, Texas.” …………………………………………………………183

sample Performance tasks for Informational texts: History/social studies & science, mathematics, and technical subjects……..183

 

 

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K–1 text exemplars

Stories

Minarik, Else Holmelund. Little Bear. Illustrated by Maurice Sendak. New York: HarperCollins, 1957. (1957) From “Birthday Soup”

“Mother Bear, Mother Bear, Where are you?” calls Little Bear.

“Oh, dear, Mother Bear is not here, and today is my birthday.

“I think my friends will come, but I do not see a birthday cake. My goodness – no birthday cake. What can I do?

The pot is by the fire. The water in the pot is hot. If I put something in the water, I can make Birthday Soup. All my friends like soup.

Let me see what we have. We have carrots and potatoes, peas and tomatoes; I can make soup with carrots, potatoes, peas and tomatoes.”

So Little Bear begins to make soup in the big black pot. First, Hen comes in. “Happy Birthday, Little Bear,” she says. “Thank you, Hen,” says Little Bear.

Hen says, “My! Something smells good here. Is it in the big black pot?”

“Yes,” says Little Bear, “I am making Birthday Soup. Will you stay and have some?”

“Oh, yes, thank you,” says Hen. And she sits down to wait.

Next, Duck comes in. “Happy Birthday, Little bear,” says Duck. “My, something smells good. Is it in the big black pot?”

“Thank you, Duck,” says Little Bear. “Yes, I am making Birthday Soup. Will you stay and have some with us?”

“Thank you, yes, thank you,” says Duck. And she sits down to wait.

Next, Cat comes in.

“Happy Birthday, Little Bear,” he says.

“Thank you, Cat,” says Little Bear. “I hope you like Birthday Soup. I am making Birthday Soup.

Cat says, “Can you really cook? If you can really make it, I will eat it.”

“Good,” says Little Bear. “The Birthday Soup is hot, so we must eat it now. We cannot wait for Mother Bear. I do not know where she is.”

“Now, here is some soup for you, Hen,” says Little Bear. “And here is some soup for you, Duck, and here is some soup for you, Cat, and here is some soup for me. Now we can all have some Birthday Soup.”

Cat sees Mother Bear at the door, and says, “Wait, Little Bear. Do not eat yet. Shut your eyes, and say one, two, three.”

Little Bear shuts his eyes and says, “One, two, three.”

Mother Bear comes in with a big cake.

“Now, look,” says Cat.

“Oh, Mother Bear,” says Little Bear, “what a big beautiful Birthday Cake! Birthday Soup is good to eat, but not as good as Birthday Cake. I am so happy you did not forget.”

 

 

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“Yes, Happy Birthday, Little Bear!” says Mother Bear. “This Birthday Cake is a surprise for you. I never did forget your birthday, and I never will.”

TEXT COPYRIGHT © 1957 BY ELSE HOLMELUND MINARIK. ILLUSTRATIONS COPYRIGHT © 1957 BY MAURICE SEN- DAK. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Eastman, P. D. Are You My Mother? New York: Random House, 1960. (1960)

A mother bird sat on her egg.

The egg jumped.

“Oh oh!” said the mother bird. “My baby will be here! He will want to eat.”

“I must get something for my baby bird to eat!” she said. “I will be back!”

So away she went.

From ARE YOU MY MOTHER? by P. D. Eastman, copyright © 1960 by P. D. Eastman. Copyright renewed 1988 by Mary L. Eastman. Used by permission of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Random House, Inc.

Seuss, Dr. Green Eggs and Ham. New York: Random House, 1960. (1960)

Lopshire, Robert. Put Me in the Zoo. New York: Random House, 1960. (1960)

I will go into the zoo. I want to see it. Yes, I do.

I would like to live this way. This is where I want to stay.

Will you keep me in the zoo? I want to stay in here with you.

From PUT ME IN THE ZOO by Robert Lopshire, copyright © 1960, renewed 1988 by Robert Lopshire. Used by permis- sion of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. Any additional use of this text, such as for classroom use or curriculum development, requires independent permission from Random House, Inc.

Mayer, Mercer. A Boy, a Dog and a Frog. New York: Dial, 2003. (1967)

This is a wordless book appropriate for kindergarten.

Lobel, Arnold. Frog and Toad Together. New York: HarperCollins, 1971. (1971) From “The Garden”

Frog was in his garden. Toad came walking by.

“What a fine garden you have, Frog,” he said.

“Yes,” said Frog. “It is very nice, but it was hard work.”

“I wish I had a garden,” said Toad.

“Here are some flower seeds. Plant them in the ground,” said Frog, “and soon you will have a garden.”

“How soon?” asked Toad.

“Quite soon,” said Frog.

Toad ran home. He planted the flower seeds.

 

 

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“Now seeds,” said Toad, “start growing.”

Toad walked up and down a few times. The seeds did not start to grow. Toad put his head close to the ground and said loudly, “Now seeds, start growing!” Toad looked at the ground again. The seeds did not start to grow.

Toad put his head very close to the ground and shouted, “NOW SEEDS, START GROWING!”

Frog came running up the path. “What is all this noise?” he asked. “My seeds will not grow,” said Toad. “You are shouting too much,” said Frog. “These poor seeds are afraid to grow.”

“My seeds are afraid to grow?” asked Toad.

“Of course,” said Frog. “Leave them alone for a few days. Let the sun shine on them, let the rain fall on them. Soon your seeds will start to grow.”

That night, Toad looked out of his window. “Drat!” said Toad. “My seeds have not started to grow. They must be afraid of the dark.”

Toad went out to his garden with some candles. “I will read the seeds a story,” said Toad. “Then they will not be afraid.” Toad read a long story to his seeds.

All the next day Toad sang songs to his seeds.

And all the next day Toad read poems to his seeds.

And all the next day Toad played music for his seeds.

Toad looked at the ground. The seeds still did not start to grow. “What shall I do?” cried Toad. “These must be the most frightened seeds in the whole world!”

Then Toad felt very tired and he fell asleep.

“Toad, Toad, wake up,” said Frog. “Look at your garden!”

Toad looked at his garden. Little green plants were coming up out of the ground.

“At last,” shouted Toad, “my seeds have stopped being afraid to grow!”

“And now you will have a nice garden too,” said Frog.

“Yes,” said Toad, “but you were right, Frog. It was very hard work.”

TEXT COPYRIGHT © 1971, 1972 BY ARNOLD LOBEL. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Lobel, Arnold. Owl at Home. New York: HarperCollins, 1975. (1975) From “Owl and the Moon”

One night Owl went down to the seashore. He sat on a large rock and looked out at the waves. Everything was dark. Then a small tip of the moon came up over the edge of the sea.

Owl watched the moon. It climbed higher and higher into the sky. Soon the whole, round moon was shining. Owl sat on the rock and looked up at the moon for a long time. “If I am looking at you, moon, then you must be looking back at me. We must be very good friends.”

The moon did not answer, but Owl said, “I will come back and see you again, moon. But now I must go home.” Owl walked down the path. He looked up at the sky. The moon was still there. It was following him.

“No, no, moon,” said Owl. “It is kind of you to light my way. But you must stay up over the sea where you look so fine.” Owl walked on a little farther. He looked at the sky again. There was the moon coming right along with him. “Dear moon,” said Owl, “you really must not come home with me. My house is small. You would not fit through the door. And I have nothing to give you for supper.”

Owl kept on walking. The moon sailed after him over the tops of the trees. “Moon,” said Owl, “I think that you do not hear me.” Owl climbed to the top of a hill. He shouted as loudly as he could, “Good-bye, moon!”

The moon went behind some clouds. Owl looked and looked. The moon was gone. “It is always a little sad to say good-bye to a friend,” said Owl.

 

 

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Owl came home. He put on his pajamas and went to bed. The room was very dark. Owl was still feeling sad. All at once, Owl’s bedroom was filled with silver light. Owl looked out of the window. The moon was coming from behind the clouds. “Moon, you have followed me all the way home. What a good, round friend you are!” said Owl.

Then Owl put his head on the pillow and closed his eyes. The moon was shining down through the window. Owl did not feel sad at all.

COPYRIGHT © 1975 BY ARNOLD LOBEL. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

DePaola, Tomie. Pancakes for Breakfast. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1978. (1978)

This is a wordless book appropriate for kindergarten.

Arnold, Tedd. Hi! Fly Guy. New York: Scholastic, 2006. (2006) From Chapter 1

A fly went flying. He was looking for something to eat—something tasty, something slimy. A boy went walking He was looking for something to catch—something smart, something for The Amazing Pet Show. They met. The boy caught the fly in a jar. “A pet!” He said. The fly was mad. He wanted to be free. He stomped his foot and said—Buzz! The boy was surprised. He said, “You know my name! You are the smartest pet in the world!”

From HI! FLY GUY by Tedd Arnold. Scholastic Inc./Cartwheel Books. Copyright © 2005 by Tedd Arnold. Used by per- mission.

Poetry

Anonymous. “As I Was Going to St. Ives.” The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes. Edited by Iona and Peter Opie. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. (c1800, traditional)

As I was going to St. Ives, I met a man with seven wives, Each wife had seven sacks, Each sack had seven cats, Each cat had seven kits: Kits, cats, sacks, and wives, How many were there going to St. Ives?

Rossetti, Christina. “Mix a Pancake.” Read-Aloud Rhymes for the Very Young. Selected by Jack Prelutsky. Illustrated by Marc Brown. New York: Knopf, 1986. (1893)

Mix a pancake, Stir a pancake, Pop it in the pan; Fry the pancake, Toss the pancake— Catch it if you can.

 

 

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Fyleman, Rose. “Singing-Time.” Read-Aloud Rhymes for the Very Young. Selected by Jack Prelutsky. Illustrated by Marc Brown. New York: Knopf, 1986. (1919)

I wake in the morning early And always, the very first thing, I poke out my head and I sit up in bed And I sing and I sing and I sing.

Milne, A. A. “Halfway Down.” When We Were Very Young. Illustrated by Ernest H. Shepard. New York: Dutton, 1988. (1924)

Chute, Marchette. “Drinking Fountain.” Read-Aloud Rhymes for the Very Young. Selected by Jack Prelutsky. Illustrated by Marc Brown. New York: Knopf, 1986. (1957)

When I climb up To get a drink, It doesn’t work The way you’d think.

I turn it up, The water goes And hits me right Upon the nose.

I turn it down To make it small And don’t get any Drink at all.

From Around and About by Marchette Chute, published 1957 by E.P. Dutton. Copyright renewed by Marchette Chute, 1985. Reprinted by permission of Elizabeth Hauser.

Hughes, Langston. “Poem.” The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. New York: Knopf, 1994. (1958)

Ciardi, John. “Wouldn’t You?” Read-Aloud Rhymes for the Very Young. Selected by Jack Prelutsky. Illustrated by Marc Brown. New York: Knopf, 1986. (1961)

If I Could go As high And low As the wind As the wind As the wind Can blow—

I’d go!

COPYRIGHT © 1962 BY JOHN CIARDI. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Wright, Richard. “Laughing Boy.” Winter Poems. Selected by Barbara Rogasky. Illustrated by Trina Schart Hyman. New York: Scholastic, 1994. (1973) [Note: This poem was originally titled “In the Falling Snow.”]

Greenfield, Eloise. “By Myself.” Honey, I Love, and Other Love Poems. Illustrated by Leo and Diane Dillon. New York: Crowell, 1978. (1978)

Giovanni, Nikki. “Covers.” The 20th Century Children’s Poetry Treasury. Selected by Jack Prelutsky. Illustrated by Meilo So. New York: Knopf, 1999. (1980)

Glass covers windows to keep the cold away Clouds cover the sky to make a rainy day

 

 

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Nighttime covers all the things that creep Blankets cover me when I’m asleep

COPYRIGHT © 1980 BY Nikki Giovanni. Used by permission.

Merriam, Eve. “It Fell in the City.” Read-Aloud Rhymes for the Very Young. Selected by Jack Prelutsky. Illustrated by Marc Brown. New York: Knopf, 1986. (1985)

Lopez, Alonzo. “Celebration.” Song and Dance. Selected by Lee Bennett Hopkins. Illustrated by Cheryl Munro Taylor. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. (1993)

I shall dance tonight. When the dusk comes crawling, There will be dancing and feasting. I shall dance with the others in circles, in leaps, in stomps. Laughter and talk Will weave into the night, Among the fires of my people. Games will be played And I shall be a part of it.

From WHISPERING WIND by Terry Allen, copyright © 1972 by the Institute of American Indian Arts. Used by permis- sion of Doubleday, a division of Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. Any additional use of this text, such as for classroom use or curriculum development, requires independent permission from Random House, Inc.

Agee, Jon. “Two Tree Toads.” Orangutan Tongs. New York: Hyperion, 2009. (2009)

A three-toed tree toad tried to tie A two-toed tree toad’s shoe. But tying two-toed shoes is hard For three-toed toads to do, Since three-toed shoes each have three toes, And two-toed shoes have two.

“Please tie my two-toed tree toad shoe!” The two-toed tree toad cried. “I tried my best. Now I must go,” The three-toed tree toad sighed. The two-toed tree toad’s two-toed shoe, Alas, remained untied.

From Jon Agee’s Orangutan Tongs © 2009 by Jon Agee. Reprinted by Permission of Disney∙Hyperion, an imprint of Disney Book Group LLC, All Rights Reserved.

 

 

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Read-Aloud Stories

Baum, L. Frank. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Illustrated by W. W. Denslow. New York: HarperCollins, 2000. (1900) From Chapter 1: “The Cyclone”

Dorothy lived in the midst of the great Kansas prairies, with Uncle Henry, who was a farmer, and Aunt Em, who was the farmer’s wife. Their house was small, for the lumber to build it had to be carried by wagon many miles. There were four walls, a floor and a roof, which made one room; and this room contained a rusty looking cookstove, a cupboard for the dishes, a table, three or four chairs, and the beds. Uncle Henry and Aunt Em had a big bed in one corner, and Dorothy a little bed in another corner. There was no garret at all, and no cellar—except a small hole dug in the ground, called a cy- clone cellar, where the family could go in case one of those great whirlwinds arose, mighty enough to crush any building in its path. It was reached by a trap door in the middle of the floor, from which a ladder led down into the small, dark hole.

When Dorothy stood in the doorway and looked around, she could see nothing but the great gray prairie on every side. Not a tree nor a house broke the broad sweep of flat country that reached to the edge of the sky in all direc- tions. The sun had baked the plowed land into a gray mass, with little cracks running through it. Even the grass was not green, for the sun had burned the tops of the long blades until they were the same gray color to be seen every- where. Once the house had been painted, but the sun blistered the paint and the rains washed it away, and now the house was as dull and gray as everything else.

When Aunt Em came there to live she was a young, pretty wife. The sun and wind had changed her, too. They had taken the sparkle from her eyes and left them a sober gray; they had taken the red from her cheeks and lips, and they were gray also. She was thin and gaunt, and never smiled now. When Dorothy, who was an orphan, first came to her, Aunt Em had been so startled by the child’s laughter that she would scream and press her hand upon her heart whenever Dorothy’s merry voice reached her ears; and she still looked at the little girl with wonder that she could find anything to laugh at.

Uncle Henry never laughed. He worked hard from morning till night and did not know what joy was. He was gray also, from his long beard to his rough boots, and he looked stern and solemn, and rarely spoke.

It was Toto that made Dorothy laugh, and saved her from growing as gray as her other surroundings. Toto was not gray; he was a little black dog, with long silky hair and small black eyes that twinkled merrily on either side of his funny, wee nose. Toto played all day long, and Dorothy played with him, and loved him dearly.

Today, however, they were not playing. Uncle Henry sat upon the doorstep and looked anxiously at the sky, which was even grayer than usual. Dorothy stood in the door with Toto in her arms, and looked at the sky too. Aunt Em was washing the dishes.

Wilder, Laura Ingalls. Little House in the Big Woods. Illustrated by Garth Williams. New York: HarperCollins, 2007. (1932) From “Two Big Bears”

The Story of Pa and the Bear in the Way

When I went to town yesterday with the furs I found it hard walking in the soft snow. It took me a long time to get to town, and other men with furs had come in earlier to do their trading. The storekeeper was busy, and I had to wait until he could look at my furs.

Then we had to bargain about the price of each one, and then I had to pick out the things I wanted to take in trade.

So it was nearly sundown before I could start home.

I tried to hurry, but the walking was hard and I was tired, so I had not gone far before night came. And I was alone in the Big Woods without my gun.

There were still six miles to walk, and I came along as fast as I could. The night grew darker and darker, and I wished for my gun, because I knew that some of the bears had come out of their winter dens. I had seen their tracks when I went to town in the morning.

Bears are hungry and cross at this time of year; you know they have been sleeping in their dens all winter long with nothing to eat, and that makes them thin and angry when they wake up. I did not want to meet one.

I hurried along as quick as I could in the dark. By and by the stars gave a little light. It was still black as pitch where the woods were thick, but in the open places I could see, dimly. I could see the snowy road ahead a little way, and I could see the dark woods standing all around me. I was glad when I came into an open place where the stars gave me this faint light.

 

 

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All the time I was watching, as well as I could, for bears. I was listening for the sounds they make when they go care- lessly through the bushes.

Then I came again into an open place, and there, right in the middle of my road, I saw a big black bear.

Atwater, Richard and Florence. Mr. Popper’s Penguins. Illustrated by Robert Lawson. New York: Little, Brown, 1988. (1938) From Chapter 1: “Stillwater”

It was an afternoon in late September. In the pleasant little city of Stillwater, Mr. Popper, the house painter was going home from work.

He was carrying his buckets, his ladders, and his boards so that he had rather a hard time moving along. He was spat- tered here and there with paint and calcimine, and there were bits of wallpaper clinging to his hair and whiskers, for he was rather an untidy man.

The children looked up from their play to smile at him as he passed, and the housewives, seeing him, said, “Oh dear, there goes Mr. Popper. I must remember to ask John to have the house painted over in the spring.”

No one knew what went on inside of Mr.Popper’s head, and no one guessed that he would one day be the most fa- mous person in Stillwater.

He was a dreamer. Even when he was busiest smoothing down the paste on the wallpaper, or painting the outside of other people’s houses, he would forget what he was doing. Once he had painted three sides of a kitchen green, and the other side yellow. The housewife, instead of being angry and making him do it over, had liked it so well that she had made him leave it that way. And all the other housewives, when they saw it, admired it too, so that pretty soon everybody in Stillwater had two-colored kitchens.

The reason Mr. Popper was so absent-minded was that he was always dreaming about far-away countries. He had never been out of Stillwater. Not that he was unhappy. He had a nice little house of his own, a wife whom he loved dearly, and two children, named Janie and Bill. Still, it would have been nice, he often thought, if he could have seen something of the world before he met Mrs. Popper and settled down. He had never hunted tigers in India, or climbed the peaks of the Himalayas, or dived for pearls in the South Seas. Above all, he had never seen the Poles.

Jansson, Tove. Finn Family Moomintroll. Translated by Elizabeth Portch. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1990. (1948) From “Preface”

One grey morning the first snow began to fall in the Valley of the Moomins. It fell softly and quietly, and in a few hours everything was white.

Moomintroll stood on his doorstep and watched the valley nestle beneath its winter blanket. “Tonight,” he thought, “we shall settle down for our long winter’s sleep.” (All Moomintrolls go to sleep about November. This is a good idea, too if you don’t like the cold and the long winter darkness.) Shutting the door behind him, Moomintroll stole in to his mother and said:

“The snow has come!”

“I know,” said Moominmamma. “I have already made up all your beds with the warmest blankets. You’re to sleep in the little room under the eaves with Sniff.”

“But Sniff snores so horribly,” said Moomintroll. “Couldn’t I sleep with Snufkin instead?”

“As you like, dear,” said Moominmamma. “Sniff can sleep in the room that faces east.”

So the Moomin family, their friends, and all their acquaintances began solemnly and with great ceremony to prepare for the long winter. Moominmamma laid the table for them on the verandah but they only had pine-needles for sup- per. (It’s important to have your tummy full of pine if you intend to sleep all the winter.) When the meal was over, and I’m afraid it didn’t taste very nice, they all said good-night to each other, rather more cheerfully than usual, and Moominmamma encouraged them to clean their teeth.

Haley, Gail E. A Story, A Story. New York: Atheneum, 1970. (1970)

Once, oh small children round my knee, there were no stories on earth to hear. All the stories belonged to Nyame, the

 

 

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Sky God. He kept them in a golden box next to his royal stool.

Ananse, the Spider Man, wanted to buy the Sky God’s stories. So he spun a web up to the sky.

When the Sky God heard what Ananse wanted, he laughed: “Twe, twe, twe. The price of my stories is that you bring me Osebo the leopard of-the-terrible-teeth, Mmboro the hornet who-stings-like-fire, and Mmoatia the fairy whom- men-never-see.”

Ananse bowed and answered: “I shall gladly pay the price.”

“Twe, twe, twe,” chuckled the Sky God. “How can a weak old man like you, so small, so small, so small, pay my price?”

But Ananse merely climbed down to earth to find the things that the Sky God demanded.

Ananse ran along the jungle path – yiridi, yiridi, yiridi – till he came to Osebo the leopard-of-the-terrible-teeth.

“Oho, Ananse,” said the leopard, “you are just in time to be my lunch.”

Ananse replied: “As for that, what will happen will happen. But first let us play the binding binding game.”

The leopard, who was fond of games, asked: “How is it played?”

“With vine creepers,” explained Ananse. “I will bind you by your foot and foot. Then I will untie you, and you can tie me up.”

“Very well,” growled the leopard, who planned to eat Ananse as soon as it was his turn to bind him.

So Ananse tied the leopard

by his foot

by his foot

by his foot

by his foot, with the vine creeper.

Then he said: “Now, Osebo, you are ready to meet the Sky God.” And he hung the tied leopard in a tree in the jungle.

Reprinted with the permission of Atheneum Books for Young Readers, an imprint of Simon & Schuster Children’s Pub- lishing Division from A STORY, A STORY by Gail E. Haley. Copyright © 1970 by Gail E. Haley.

Bang, Molly. The Paper Crane. New York: Greenwillow, 1987. (1985)

A man once owned a restaurant on a busy road. He loved to cook good food and he loved to serve it. He worked from morning until night, and he was happy.

But a new highway was built close by. Travelers drove straight from one place to another and no longer stopped at the restaurant. Many days went by when no guests came at all. The man became very poor, and had nothing to do but dust and polish his empty plates and tables.

One evening a stranger came into the restaurant. His clothes were old and worn, but he had an unusual, gentle man- ner.

Though he said he had not money to pay for food, the owner invited him to sit down. He cooked the best meal he could make and served him like a king. When the stranger had finished, he said to his host, “I cannot pay you with money, but I would like to thank you in my own way.”

He picked up a paper napkin from the table and folded it into the shape of a crane. “You have only to clap your hands,” he said, “and this bird will come to life and dance for you. Take it, and enjoy it while it is with you.” With these words the stranger left.

It happened just as the stranger had said. The owner had only to clap his hands and the paper crane became a living bird, flew down to the floor, and danced.

 

 

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Soon word of the dancing crane spread, and people came from far and near to see the magic bird perform.

The owner was happy again, for his restaurant was always full of guests. He cooked and served and had company from morning until night.

The weeks passed. And the months.

One evening a man came into the restaurant. His clothes were old and worn, but had an unusual, gentle manner. The owner knew him at once and was overjoyed.

The stranger, however, said nothing. He took a flute from his pocket, raised it to his lips, and began to play.

The crane flew down from its place on the shelf and danced as it had never danced before.

The stranger finished playing, lowered the flute from his lips, and returned it to his pocket. He climbed on the back of the crane, and they flew out of the door and away.

The restaurant still stands by the side of the road, and guests still come to eat the good food and hear the story of the gentle stranger and the magic crane made from a paper napkin. But neither the stranger nor the dancing crane has ever been seen again.

TEXT COPYRIGHT © 1985 BY MOLLY BANG. USED WITH PERMISSION OF GREENWILLOW BOOKS.

Young, Ed. Lon Po Po: A Red-Riding Hood Story from China. New York: Putnam, 1989. (1989)

“Po Po,” Shang shouted, but there was no answer.

“Po Po,” Tao shouted, but there was no answer.

“Po Po,” Paotze shouted. There was still no answer. The children climbed to the branches just above the wolf and saw that he was truly dead. Then they climbed down, went into the house, closed the door, locked the door with the latch and fell peacefully asleep.

On the next day their mother returned with baskets of food from their real Po Po, and the three sisters told her the story of the Po Po who had come.

Copyright © 1989 Ed Young. Reprinted with permission of McIntosh & Otis, Inc.

Garza, Carmen Lomas. Family Pictures. San Francisco: Children’s Book Press, 1990. (1990) From “The Fair in Reynosa”

My friends and I once went to a very big fair across the border in Reynosa, Mexico. The fair lasted a whole week. Artisans and entertainers came from all over Mexico. There were lots of booths with food and crafts. This is one little section where everybody is ordering and eating tacos.

I painted a father buying tacos and the rest of the family sitting down at the table. The little girl is the father’s favorite and that’s why she gets to tag along with him. I can always recognize little girls who are their fathers’ favorites.

From “Birthday Party”

That’s me hitting the piñata at my sixth birthday party. It was also my brother’s fourth birthday. My mother made a big birthday party for us and invited all kinds of friends, cousins and neighborhood kids.

You can’t see the piñata when you’re trying to hit it, because your eyes are covered with a handkerchief. My father is pulling the rope that makes the piñata go up and down. He will make sure that everybody has a chance to hit it at least once. Somebody will end up breaking it, and that’s when all the candies will fall out and all the kids will run and try to grab them.

Reprinted with permission of the publisher, Children’s Book Press. Excerpts from Family Pictures/Cuadros de Familia (© 1990, 2005) by Carmen Lomas Garza. All rights reserved.

Mora, Pat. Tomás and the Library Lady. Illustrated by Raúl Colón. New York: Knopf, 1997. (1997)

When they got hot, they sat under a tree with Papá Grande. “Tell us the story about the man in the forest,” said Tomás.

 

 

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Tomás liked to listen to Papá Grande tell stories in Spanish. Papá Grande was the best storyteller in the family.

“En un tiempo pasado,” Papá Grande began. “Once upon a time…on a windy night a man was riding a horse through a forest. The wind was howling, whoooooooo, and the leaves were blowing, whish, whish…

“All of a sudden something grabbed the man. He couldn’t move. He was too scared to look around. All night long he wanted to ride away. But he couldn’t.

“How the wind howled, whoooooooo. How the leaves blew. How his teeth chattered!

“Finally the sun came up. Slowly the man turned around. And who do you think was holding him?

Tomás smiled and said, “A thorny tree.”

Papá Grande laughed. “Tomás, you know all my stories,” he said. “There are many more in the library. You are big enough to go by yourself. Then you can teach us new stories.”

The next morning Tomás walked downtown. He looked at the big library. Its tall windows were like eyes glaring at him. Tomás walked all around the big building. He saw children coming out carrying books. Slowly he started climbing up, up the steps. He counted them to himself in Spanish. Uno, dos, tres, cuatro…His mouth felt full of cotton.

Tomás stood in front of the library doors. He pressed his nose against the glass and peeked in. The library was huge!

From TOMÁS AND THE LIBRARY LADY by Pat Mora, copyright © 1997 by Pat Mora, illustrations copyright © 1997 by Raúl Colón. Used by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, an imprint of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Ran- dom House, Inc. All rights reserved. Any additional use of this text, such as for classroom use or curriculum develop- ment, requires independent permission from Random House, Inc.

Henkes, Kevin. Kitten’s First Full Moon. New York: Greenwillow, 2004. (2004)

It was Kitten’s first full moon. When she saw it, she thought. There’s a little bowl of milk in the sky. And she wanted it.

So she closed her eyes and stretched her neck and opened her mouth and licked.

But Kitten only ended up with a bug on her tongue. Poor Kitten!

Still, there was the little bowl of milk, just waiting.

So she pulled herself together and wiggled her bottom and sprang from the top step of the porch.

But Kitten only tumbled— bumping her nose and banging her ear and pinching her tail. Poor Kitten!

Still, there was the little bowl of milk, just waiting.

So she chased it— down the sidewalk, through the garden, past the field, and by the pond. But Kitten never seemed to get closer. Poor Kitten!

Still, there was the little bowl of milk, just waiting.

 

 

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So she ran to the tallest tree she could find, and she climbed and climbed and climbed to the very top.

But Kitten still couldn’t reach the bowl of milk, and now she was scared. Poor Kitten! What could she do?

Then, in the pond, Kitten saw another bowl of milk. And it was bigger. What a night!

So she raced down the tree and raced through the grass

and raced to the edge of the pond. She leaped with all her might—

Poor Kitten! She was wet and sad and tired and hungry.

So she went back home—

and there was a great big bowl of milk on the porch,

just waiting for her.

Lucky Kitten! COPYRIGHT © 2004 BY KEVIN HENKES. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Read-Aloud Poetry

Anonymous. “The Fox’s Foray.” The Oxford Nursery Rhyme Book. Edited by Peter and Iona Opie. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955. (c1800, traditional)

A fox jumped out one winter’s night, And begged the moon to give him light. For he’d many miles to trot that night Before he reached his den O! Den O! Den O! For he’d many miles to trot that night before he reached his den O!

The first place he came to was a farmer’s yard, Where the ducks and the geese declared it hard That their nerves should be shaken and their rest so marred By a visit from Mr. Fox O! Fox O! Fox O!

 

 

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That their nerves should be shaken and their rest so marred By a visit from Mr. Fox O!

He took the grey goose by the neck, And swung him right across his back; The grey goose cried out, Quack, quack, quack, With his legs hanging dangling down O! Down O! Down O! The grey goose cried out, Quack, quack, quack, With his legs hanging dangling down O!

Old Mother Slipper Slopper jumped out of bed, And out of the window she popped her head: Oh, John, John, the grey goose is gone, And the fox is off to his den O! Den O! Den O! Oh, John, John, the grey goose is gone, And the fox is off to his den O!

John ran up to the top of the hill. And blew his whistle loud and shrill; Said the fox, That is very pretty music still – I’d rather be in my den O! Den O! Den O! Said the fox, That is very pretty music still – I’d rather be in my den O!

The fox went back to his hungry den, And his dear little foxes, eight, nine, ten; Quoth they, Good daddy, you must go there again, If you bring such god cheer from the farm O! Farm O! Farm O! Quoth they, Good daddy, you must go there again, If you bring such god cheer from the farm O!

The fox and his wife, without any strife, Said they never ate a better goose in all their life: They did very well without fork or knife, And the little ones chewed on the bones O! Bones O! Bones O! They did very well without fork or knife, And the little ones chewed on the bones O!

Langstaff, John. Over in the Meadow. Illustrated by Feodor Rojankovsky. Orlando: Houghton Mifflin, 1973. (c1800, traditional)

Over in the meadow in a new little hive Lived an old mother queen bee and her honeybees five. “Hum,” said the mother, “We hum,” said the five; So they hummed and were glad in their new little hive.

Over in the meadow in a dam built of sticks Lived an old mother beaver and her little beavers six. “Build,” said the mother, “We build,” said the six; So they built and were glad in the dam built of sticks.

Over in the meadow in the green wet bogs Lived an old mother froggie and her seven polliwogs. “Swim,” said the mother. “We swim,” said the ‘wogs; So they swam and were glad in the green wet bogs.

Over in the meadow as the day grew late Lived an old mother owl and her little owls eight.

 

 

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“Wink,” said the mother, “We wink,” said the eight; So they winked and were glad as the day grew late.

Excerpt from OVER IN THE MEADOW by John Langstaff. Text and music copyright © 1957, and renewed 1985 by John Langstaff. Used by Permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Lear, Edward. “The Owl and the Pussycat.” (1871)

The Owl and the Pussy-cat went to sea In a beautiful pea-green boat, They took some honey, and plenty of money, Wrapped up in a five-pound note. The Owl looked up to the stars above, And sang to a small guitar, ‘O lovely Pussy! O Pussy, my love, What a beautiful Pussy you are, You are, You are! What a beautiful Pussy are!’

Pussy said to the Owl, ‘You elegant fowl! How charmingly sweet you sing! O let us be married! Too long we have tarried: But what shall we do for a ring?’ They sailed away, for a year and a day, To the land where the Bong-tree grows And there in a wood a Piggy-wig stood With a ring at the end of his nose, His nose, His nose, With a ring at the end of his nose.

‘Dear Pig, are you willing to sell for one shilling Your ring?’ Said the Piggy, ‘I will.’ So they took it away, and were married next day By the turkey who lives on the hill. They dined on mince, and slices of quince, Which they ate with a runcible spoon; And hand in hand, on the edge of the sand, They danced by the light of the moon, The moon, The moon, They danced by the light of the moon.

Hughes, Langston. “April Rain Song.” The 20th Century Children’s Poetry Treasury. Selected by Jack Prelutsky. Illustrated by Meilo So. New York: Knopf, 1999. (1932)

Moss, Lloyd. Zin! Zin! Zin! a Violin. Illustrated by Marjorie Priceman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000. (1995)

With mournful moan and silken tone, Itself alone comes ONE TROMBONE. Gliding, sliding, high notes go low; ONE TROMBONE is playing SOLO.

Next a TRUMPET comes along, And sings and stings its swinging song. It joins TROMBONE, no more alone, And ONE and TWO-O, they’re a DUO.

The STRINGS all soar, the REEDS implore, The BRASSES roar with notes galore. It’s music that we all adore.

 

 

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It’s what we go to concerts for.

The minutes fly, the music ends, And so, good-bye to our new friends. But when they’ve bowed and left the floor, If we clap loud and shout, “Encore!” They may come out and play once more.

And that would give us great delight Before we say a late good night. Reprinted with the permission of Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, an imprint of Simon & Schuster Chil- dren’s Publishing Division from ZIN! ZIN! ZIN! A VIOLIN by Lloyd Moss. Text Copyright © 1995 Lloyd Moss.

Sample Performance Tasks for Stories and Poetry

• Students (with prompting and support from the teacher) describe the relationship between key events of the overall story of Little Bear by Else Holmelund Minarik to the corresponding scenes illustrated by Maurice Sen- dak. [RL.K.7]

• Students retell Arnold Lobel’s Frog and Toad Together while demonstrating their understanding of a central message or lesson of the story (e.g., how friends are able to solve problems together or how hard work pays off). [RL.1.2]

• Students (with prompting and support from the teacher) compare and contrast the adventures and experi- ences of the owl in Arnold Lobel’s Owl at Home to those of the owl in Edward Lear’s poem “The Owl and the Pussycat.” [RL.K.9]

• Students read two texts on the topic of pancakes (Tomie DePaola’s Pancakes for Breakfast and Christina Rossetti’s “Mix a Pancake”) and distinguish between the text that is a storybook and the text that is a poem. [RL.K.5]

• After listening to L. Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, students describe the characters of Dorothy, Auntie Em, and Uncle Henry, the setting of Kansan prairie, and major events such as the arrival of the cyclone. [RL.1.3]

• Students (with prompting and support from the teacher) when listening to Laura Ingalls Wilder’s Little House in the Big Woods ask questions about the events that occur (such as the encounter with the bear) and answer by offering key details drawn from the text. [RL.1.1]

• Students identify the points at which different characters are telling the story in the Finn Family Moomintroll by Tove Jansson. [RL.1.6]

• Students identify words and phrases within Molly Bang’s The Paper Crane that appeal to the senses and suggest the feelings of happiness experienced by the owner of the restaurant (e.g., clapped, played, loved, overjoyed). [RL.1.4]

Informational Texts

Bulla, Clyde Robert. A Tree Is a Plant. Illustrated by Stacey Schuett. New York: HarperCollins, 2001. (1960)

A tree is a plant. A tree is the biggest plant that grows. Most kinds of trees grow from seeds the way most small plants do. There are many kinds of trees. Here are a few of them. How many do you know? [illustration is labeled with Maple, Conifer, Persimmon, Palms, Lemon, Willow]

 

 

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This tree grows in the country. It might grow in your yard, too. Do you know what kind it is? This is an apple tree.

This apple tree came from a seed. The seed was small. It grew inside an apple. Have you ever seen an apple seed? Ask an adult to help you cut an apple in two. The seeds are in the center. They look like this.

Most apple trees come from seeds that are planted. Sometimes an apple tree grows from a seed that falls to the ground. The wind blows leaves over the seed. The wind blows soil over the seed.

All winter the seed lies under the leaves and the soil. All winter the seed lies under the ice and snow and is pushed into the ground. Spring comes. Rain falls. The sun comes out and warms the earth. The seed begins to grow.

At first the young plant does not look like a tree. The tree is very small. It is only a stem with two leaves. It has no ap- ples on it. A tree must grow up before it has apples on it. Each year the tree grows. It grows tall. In seven years it is so tall that you can stand under its branches. In the spring there are blossoms on the tree. Spring is apple-blossom time.

[…]

We cannot see the roots. They are under the ground. Some of the roots are large. Some of them are as small as hairs. The roots grow like branches under the ground. A tree could not live without roots.

Roots hold the trunk in the ground. Roots keep the tree from falling when the wind blows. Roots keep the rain from washing the tree out of the ground.

Roots do something more. They take water from the ground. They carry the water into the trunk of the tree. The trunk carries the water to the branches. The branches carry the water to the leaves.

Hundreds and hundreds of leaves grow on the branches. The leaves make food from water and air. They make food when the sun shines. The food goes into the branches. It goes into the trunk and roots. It goes to every part of the tree.

Fall comes and winter is near. The work of the leaves is over. The leaves turn yellow and brown. The leaves die and fall to the ground.

Now the tree is bare. All winter it looks dead. But the tree is not dead. Under its coat of bark, the tree is alive.

TEXT COPYRIGHT © 1981 BY CLYDE ROBERT BULLA. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Aliki. My Five Senses. New York: HarperCollins, 1989. (1962)

I can see! I see with my eyes.

I can hear! I hear with my ears.

I can smell! I smell with my nose.

I can taste! I taste with my tongue.

I can touch! I touch with my fingers.

I do all this with my senses. I have five senses.

When I see the sun or a frog or my baby sister, I use my sense of sight. I am seeing.

When I hear a drum or a fire engine or a bird, I use my sense of hearing. I am hearing.

When I smell soap or a pine tree or cookies just out of the oven, I use my sense of smell. I am smelling.

When I drink my milk and eat my food, I use my sense of taste. I am tasting.

When I touch a kitten or a balloon or water, I use my sense of touch. I am touching.

Sometimes I use all my senses at once. Sometimes I use only one. I often play a game with myself. I guess how many senses I am using at that time.

 

 

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When I look at the moon and the stars, I use one sense. I am seeing.

When I laugh and play with my puppy, I use four senses. I see, hear, smell, and touch.

When I bounce a ball, I use three senses. I see, hear, touch.

Sometimes I use more of one sense and less of another.

But each sense is very important to me, because it makes me aware.

To be aware is to see all there is to see… hear all there is to hear… smell all there is to smell… taste all there is to taste… touch all there is to touch.

Wherever I go, whatever I do, every minute of the day, my senses are working. They make me aware.

COPYRIGHT © 1962, 1989 BY ALIKI BRANDENBERG. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Hurd, Edith Thacher. Starfish. Illustrated by Robin Brickman. New York: HarperCollins, 2000. (1962)

Starfish live in the sea. Starfish live deep down in the sea. Starfish live in pools by the sea.

Some starfish are purple. Some starfish are pink.

This is the sunflower starfish. It is the biggest of all. Starfish have many arms. The arms are called rays. Starfish have arms, but no legs.

Starfish have feet, but no toes. They glide and slide on tiny tube feet. They move as slowly as a snail.

The basket star looks like a starfish, but it is a little different. It doesn’t have tube feet. It moves with its rays. It has rays that go up and rays that go down.

Tiny brittle stars are like the basket star. They hide under rocks in pools by the sea.

The mud star hides in the mud. It is a starfish. It has tiny tube feet.

A starfish has no eyes. A starfish has no ears or nose. Its tiny mouth is on its underside. When a starfish is hungry, it slides and it glides on its tiny tube feet.

It hunts for mussels and oysters and clams. It feels for the mussels, It feels for the oysters. It feels for the clams. It feels for something to eat.

The starfish crawls over a clam. Its rays go over it. Its rays go under it. Its rays go all over the clam. The starfish pulls and pulls. It pulls the shells open. It eats the clam inside.

Sometimes a starfish loses a ray. A crab may pull it off. A rock may fall on it. But this does not hurt. It does not bother the starfish. The starfish just grows another ray.

In the spring when the sun shines warm, and the sea grows warm, starfish lay eggs. Starfish lay eggs in the water. They lay many, many, many tiny eggs. The eggs look like sand in the sea. The tiny eggs float in the water. They float up and down. They move with the waves and the tide, up and down, up and down.

Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Aliki. A Weed is a Flower: The Life of George Washington Carver. New York: Prentice Hall, 1965. (1965)

Crews, Donald. Truck. New York: HarperCollins, 1980. (1980)

This is a largely wordless book appropriate for kindergarten.

 

 

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Hoban, Tana. I Read Signs. New York: HarperCollins, 1987 (1987)

This is a largely wordless book appropriate for kindergarten.

Reid, Mary Ebeltoft. Let’s Find Out About Ice Cream. Photographs by John Williams. New York: Scholastic, 1996. (1996)

“Garden Helpers.” National Geographic Young Explorers September 2009. (2009)

Not all bugs and worms are pests. Some help your garden grow. Earthworms make soil rich and healthy. This helps plants grow strong!

A ladybug eats small bugs. The bugs can’t eat the plants. This keeps your garden safe.

A praying mantis eats any bug it can catch. Not many bugs can get past this quick hunter!

This spider catches bugs in its sticky web. It keeps bugs away from your garden.

Copyright © 2009 National Geographic. Used by permission.

“Wind Power.” National Geographic Young Explorers November/December 2009. (2009)

Wind is air on the move. See what wind can do.

Wind can whip up some fun!

Wind starts with the sun. The sun warms land and water. The air above warms up too.

Warm air rises. Cooler air rushes in. That moving air is wind.

Wind is energy. It can push a sailboat.

Look at the windmills spin! They turn wind energy into electricity. What else can wind do?

Copyright © 2009 National Geographic. Used by permission.

Read-Aloud Informational Texts

Provensen, Alice and Martin. The Year at Maple Hill Farm. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. (1978)

Gibbons, Gail. Fire! Fire! New York: HarperCollins, 1987. (1984) From “Fire! Fire! In the city…”

In an apartment house, a breeze has blown a towel up into the flame of a hot stove. A fire begins. The smoke alarm screams.

 

 

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A phone call alerts the fire-dispatch center. Instantly, a dispatcher calls the firehouse nearest the fire.

A loudspeaker blares out the address of the fire, and the firefighters go into action. They slide down brass poles to the ground floor, where the fire engines are, and hurry into their fire-fighting gear. Then they take their positions on their engines.

The big trucks roar out of the firehouse. Sirens scream and lights flash.

The fire engines arrive at the scene. The fire is bigger now. The fire chief is in charge. He decides the best way to fight this fire.

Hoses are pulled from the trucks. Each separate fire truck is called a “company.” Each separate company has an of- ficer in charge. The fire chief tells each officer in charge what he wants the firefighters to do.

Firefighters are ordered to search the building to make sure no one is still inside. A man is trapped. A ladder tower is swung into action. The man is rescued quickly.

At the same time, an aerial ladder is taking other firefighters to the floor above the fire. Inside, the firefighters attach a hose to the building’s standpipe. Water is sprayed onto the fire to keep it from moving up through the apartment house.

Now the aerial ladder is swung over to the roof of the burning building. Firefighters break holes in the roof and win- dows to let out poisonous gases, heat, and smoke before they can cause a bad explosion. There’s less danger now for the firefighters working inside the building.

Firefighters are battling the blaze from the outside of the building, too. Fire hoses carry water from the fire hydrants to the trucks.

Pumps in the fire trucks control the water pressure and push the water up through the discharge hoses. Streams of water hit the burning building and buildings next door to keep the fire from spreading.

The fire is under control.

The fire is out. The firefighters clean up the rubble. Back at the firehouse, they clean their equipment and make an official report on the fire.

COPYRIGHT © 1984 BY GAIL GIBBONS. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Dorros, Arthur. Follow the Water from Brook to Ocean. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. (1991)

After the next big rain storm, put your boots on and go outside. Look at the water dripping from your roof. Watch it gush out of the drainpipes. You can see water flowing down your street too.

Water is always flowing. It trickles in the brook near your house.

Sometimes you see water rushing along in a stream or in a big river.

Water always flows downhill. It flows from high places to low places, just the way you and your skateboard move down a hill.

Sometimes water collects in a low spot in the land – a puddle, a pond, or a lake. The water’s downhill journey may end there. Most of the time, though, the water will find a way to keep flowing downhill. Because water flows down- hill, it will keep flowing until it can’t go any lower. The lowest parts of the earth are the oceans. Water will keep flow- ing until it reaches an ocean.

Where does the water start? Where does the water in a brook or a stream or a river come from? The water comes from rain. And it comes from melting snow. The water from rain and melting snow runs over the ground. Some of it soaks into the ground, and some water is soaked up by trees and other plants. But a lot of the water keeps traveling over the ground, flowing downhill.

The water runs along, flowing over the ground. Trickles of water flow together to form a brook. A brook isn’t very deep or wide. You could easily step across a brook to get to the other side.

The brook flows over small stones covered with algae. Algae are tiny plants. They can be green, red, or brown. Green algae make the water look green. Plop! A frog jumps into the brook. A salamander wiggles through leafy

 

 

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water plants. Slap! A trout’s tail hits the water. Lots of creatures live in the moving water.

COPYRIGHT © 1991 BY ARTHUR DORROS. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Rauzon, Mark, and Cynthia Overbeck Bix. Water, Water Everywhere. San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1994. (1994)

Llewellyn, Claire. Earthworms. New York: Franklin Watts, 2002. (2002)

Jenkins, Steve, and Robin Page. What Do You Do With a Tail Like This? Orlando: Houghton Mifflin, 2003. (2003)

What do you do with a nose like this? If you’re a platypus, you use your nose to dig in the mud. If you’re a hyena, you find your next meal with your nose. If you’re an elephant, you use your nose to give yourself a bath. If you’re a mole, you use your nose to find your way underground. If you’re an alligator, you breathe through your nose while hiding in the water. What do you do with ears like these? If you’re a jackrabbit, you use your ears to keep cool. If you’re a bat you “see” with your ears. If you’re a cricket, you hear with ears that are on your knees. If you’re a humpback whale, you hear sounds hundreds of miles away. If you’re a hippopotamus, you close your ears when you’re under water. What do you do with a tail like this? If you’re a giraffe, you brush off pesky flies with your tail. If you’re a skunk, you lift your tail to warn that a stinky spray is on the way. If you’re a lizard, you break off your tail to get away. If you’re a scorpion, your tail can give a nasty sting. If you’re a monkey, you hang from a tree by your tail. What do you do with eyes like these? If you’re an eagle, you spot tiny animals from high in the air. If you’re a chameleon, you look two ways at once. If you’re a four-eye fish, you look above and below the water at the same time. If you’re a bush baby, you use your large eyes to see clearly at night. If you’re a horned lizard, you squirt blood out of your eyes. What do you do with feet like these? If you’re a chimpanzee, you feed yourself with your feet. If you’re a water strider, you walk on water. If you’re a blue-footed booby, you do a dance. If you’re a gecko, you use your sticky feet to walk on the ceiling. If you’re a mountain goat, you leap from ledge to ledge. What do you do with a mouth like this? If you’re a pelican, you use your mouth as a net to scoop up fish. If you’re an egg-eating snake, you use your mouth to swallow eggs larger than your head. If you’re a mosquito, you use your mouth to suck blood. If you’re an anteater, you capture termites with your long tongue. If you’re an archerfish, you catch insects by shooting them down with a stream of water.

Excerpted from WHAT DO YOU DO WITH A TAIL LIKE THIS? By Steve Jenkins and Robin Page. Copyright © 2003 by Steve Jenkins and Robin Page. Used by Permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Pfeffer, Wendy. From Seed to Pumpkin. Illustrated by James Graham Hale. New York: HarperCollins, 2004. (2004)

When spring winds warm the earth, a farmer plants hundreds of pumpkin seeds.

Every pumpkin seed can become a baby pumpkin plant. Underground, covered with dark, moist soil, the baby plants begin to grow.

As the plants get bigger, the seeds crack open. Stems sprout up. Roots dig down. Inside the roots are tubes. Water travels up these tubes the way juice goes up a straw.

In less than two weeks from planting time, green shoots poke up through the earth.

 

 

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These shoots grow into tiny seedlings. Two leaves, called seed leaves, uncurl on each stem. They reach up toward the sun.

Sunlight gives these leaves energy to make food. Like us, plants need food to grow. But green plants do not eat food as we do. Their leaves make it.

To make food, plants need light, water, and air. Leaves catch the sunlight. Roots soak up rainwater. And little open- ings in the leaves let air in. Using energy from the sun, the leaves mix the air with water from the soil to make sugar. This feeds the plant.

Soon broad, prickly leaves with jagged edges unfold on the stems.

The seed leaves dry up. Now the new leaves make food for the pumpkin plant.

Each pumpkin stem has many sets of tubes. One tube in each set takes water from the soil up to the leaves so they can make sugar. The other tube in each set sends food back down so the pumpkin can grow.

The days grow warmer. The farmer tends the pumpkin patch to keep weeds out. Weeds take water from the soil. Pumpkin plants need that water to grow.

Text copyright © 2004 by Wendy Pfeffer. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Thomson, Sarah L. Amazing Whales! New York: HarperCollins, 2006. (2005)

A blue whale is as long as a basketball court. Its eyes are as big as softballs. Its tongue weighs as much as an el- ephant.

It is the biggest animal that has ever lived on Earth – bigger than any dinosaur.

But not all whales are this big. A killer whale is about as long as a fire truck. Dolphins and porpoises are whales too, very small whales. The smallest dolphin is only five feet long. That’s probably shorter than your mom.

There are about 80 kinds of whales. All of them are mammals. Dogs and monkeys and people are mammals, too. They are warm-blooded. This means that their blood stays at the same temperature even if the air or water around them gets hot or cold.

Mammal babies drink milk from their mothers. Whale babies are called calves.

And mammals breathe air. A whale must swim to the ocean’s surface to breathe or it will drown. After a whale calf is born, its mother may lift it up for its first breath of air.

A whale uses its blowholes to breathe. It can have one blowhole or two. The blowholes are on the top of its head. When a whale breathes out, the warm breath makes a cloud called a blow. Then the whale breathes in. Its blowholes squeeze shut. The whale dives under the water. It holds its breath until it comes back up.

When sperm whales hunt, they dive deeper than any other whale. They can hold their breath for longer than an hour and dive down more than a mile.

Deep in the ocean, where the water is dark and cold, sperm whales hunt for giant squid and other animals.

Some whales, like sperm whales, have teeth to catch their food. They are called toothed whales. Other whales have no teeth. They are called baleen whales. (Say it like this: bay-LEEN.) Blue whales and humpback whales are baleen whales. They have strips of baleen in their mouths. Baleen is made of the same stuff as your fingernails. It is strong but it can bend.

A baleen whale fills its mouth with water. In the water there might be fish or krill. Krill are tiny animals like shrimp. The whale closes its mouth. The water flows back out between the strips of baleen.

The fish or krill are trapped inside its mouth for the whale to eat.

Some whales, like killer whales, hunt in groups to catch their food. These groups are called pods. A whale mother and her children, and even her grandchildren sometimes live in one pod.

Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

 

 

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Hodgkins, Fran, and True Kelley. How People Learned to Fly. New York: HarperCollins, 2007. (2007)

When you see a bird flying, do you dream about flying too?

Do you run with your arms out, imagining that you’re soaring among the clouds? Do you make paper airplanes? Do you fly kites?

If you do, you aren’t alone. For thousands of years, people have dreamed of being able to fly.

They watched birds and bats soar.

They imagined people and other animals that could fly and told stories about them.

They designed machines that they thought would be able to fly.

They had many ideas. As they tried each new idea, they learned a lot.

They learned about gravity. Gravity is the force that keeps everything on the Earth’s surface. Because of gravity, things have weight.

If there were no gravity, people, dogs, cats, and everything else would go floating off into space. Gravity keeps us on the ground, even if we would rather be flying.

People also learned about air. Air is made of tiny particles called molecules. When you walk or run, you push through air molecules. They push back on you, too, even though you don’t really feel the push unless the wind blows.

People learned that wind could push a kite into the sky.

When air molecules push back on a moving object, that is a force called drag. You can feel drag for yourself. Hold out your arms. Now spin around. Feel the push of air on your arms and hands? That’s drag. Like gravity, drag works against objects that are trying to fly.

Kites were useful and fun, but people wanted more. They wanted to fly like birds.

Birds had something that kites didn’t: Birds had wings.

People made wings and strapped them to their arms. They flapped their arms but couldn’t fly.

They built gliders, light aircraft with wings. Some didn’t work, but some did.

The gliders that worked best had special wings. These wings were arched on both the top and the bottom. The air pulled the wings from above and pushed the wings from below. When the wings went up, so did the glider! Arched wings help create a force called lift. Lift is the force that keeps birds and gliders in the air.

Most gliders have long, thin wings. The wings create enough lift to carry the aircraft and its passengers. Gliders usu- ally ride currents of air the same way a hawk soars.

Gliders are very light, and long wings and air currents can give them enough lift to fly. But to carry more than just a passenger or two, an aircraft needs a lot more lift. The question is: How do you create more lift?

The engine is the answer!

The engine is a machine that changes energy into movement. The forward movement that an airplane needs to fly is called thrust. More thrust makes an airplane move forward faster. Moving faster creates more lift. And with more lift, an airplane can carry more weight. So an aircraft with an engine can carry passengers or cargo.

In 1903 the Wright brothers figured out how to get wings and an engine to work together in order to give an airplane enough thrust to fly. They made the first powered flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

Since then, people have made airplanes that can fly faster than sound can travel. They have made airplanes that can fly all the way around the world without stopping.

Today, thousands of people travel in airplanes every day. People really have learned how to fly!

Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Nivola, Claire A. Planting the trees of Kenya: the story of Wangari Maathai. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2008. (2008)

 

 

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Sample Performance Tasks for Informational Texts

• Students identify the reasons Clyde Robert Bulla gives in his book A Tree Is a Plant in support of his point about the function of roots in germination. [RI.1.8]

• Students identify Edith Thacher Hurd as the author of Starfish and Robin Brickman as the illustrator of the text and define the role and materials each contributes to the text. [RI.K.6]

• Students (with prompting and support from the teacher) read “Garden Helpers” in National Geographic Young Explorers and demonstrate their understanding of the main idea of the text—not all bugs are bad—by retelling key details. [RI.K.2]

• After listening to Gail Gibbons’ Fire! Fire!, students ask questions about how firefighters respond to a fire and answer using key details from the text. [RI.1.1]

• Students locate key facts or information in Claire Llewellyn’s Earthworms by using various text features (head- ings, table of contents, glossary) found in the text. [RI.1.5]

• Students ask and answer questions about animals (e.g., hyena, alligator, platypus, scorpion) they encounter in Steve Jenkins and Robin Page’s What Do You Do With a Tail Like This? [RI.K.4]

• Students use the illustrations along with textual details in Wendy Pfeffer’s From Seed to Pumpkin to describe the key idea of how a pumpkin grows. [RI.1.7]

• Students (with prompting and support from the teacher) describe the connection between drag and flying in Fran Hodgkins and True Kelley’s How People Learned to Fly by performing the “arm spinning” experiment described in the text. [RI.K.3]

 

 

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Grades 2–3 text exemplars

Stories

Gannett, Ruth Stiles. My Father’s Dragon. Illustrated by Ruth Chrisman Gannett. New York: Random House, 1948. (1948).

From Chapter Seven “My Father Meets a Lion”

“Who are you?” the lion yelled at my father.

“My name is Elmer Elevator.”

“Where do you think you are going?”

“I’m going home,” said my father.

“That’s what you think!” said the lion. “Ordinarily I’d save you for afternoon tea, but I happen to be upset enough and hungry enough to eat you right now.” And he picked up my father in his front paws to feel how fat he was.

My father said, “Oh, please, Lion, before you eat me, tell me why you are so particularly upset today.”

“It’s my mane,” said the lion, as he was figuring out how many bites a little boy would make. “You see what a dreadful mess it is, and I don’t seem to be able to do anything about it. My mother is coming over on the dragon this after- noon, and if she sees me this way I’m afraid she’ll stop my allowance. She can’t stand messy manes! But I’m going to eat you now, so it won’t make any difference to you.”

“Oh, wait a minute,” said my father, “and I’ll give you just the things you need to make your mane a tidy and beautiful. I have them here in my pack.”

“You do?” said the lion, “Well, give them to me, and perhaps I’ll save you for afternoon tea after all,” and he put my father down on the ground.”

My father opened the pack and took out the comb and the brush and the seven hair ribbons of different colors. “Look,” he said, “I’ll show you what to do on your forelock, where you can watch me. First you brush a while, and then you comb, and then you brush again until all the twigs and snarls are gone. Then you divide it up into three and braid it like this and tie a ribbon around the end.”

Ad my father was doing this, the lion watched very carefully and began to look much happier. When my father tied the ribbon he was all smiles. “Oh, that’s wonderful, really wonderful!” said the lion. “Let me have the comb and brush and see if I can do it.” So my father gave him the comb and brush and the lion began busily grooming his mane. As a matter of fact, he was so busy that he didn’t even know when my father left.

From MY FATHER’S DRAGON by Ruth Stiles Gannett, copyright 1948 by Random House, Inc. Used by permission of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. Any additional use of this text, such as for classroom use or curriculum development, requires independent permission from Random House, Inc.

Averill, Esther. The Fire Cat. New York: HarperCollins, 1960. (1960) From “The Fire Cat”

Joe took Pickles to the Chief, who was sitting at his desk.

“Oh!” said the Chief. “I know this young cat. He is the one who chases little cats.”

“How do you know?” asked Joe.

The Chief answered, “A Fire Chief knows many things.”

Just then the telephone began to ring. “Hello,” said the Chief. “Oh, hello, Mrs. Goodkind. Yes, Pickles is here. He came with Joe. What did you say? You think Pickles would like to live in our firehouse? Well, we shall see. Thank you, Mrs. Goodkind. Good-bye.”

 

 

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The Chief looked at Pickles and said, “Mrs. Goodkind says you are not a bad cat. And Joe likes you. I will let you live here IF you will learn to be a good firehouse cat.”

Pickles walked quietly up the stairs after Joe. Joe and Pickles went into a room where the firemen lived.

The men were pleased to have a cat. They wanted to play with Pickles. But suddenly the fire bell rang. All the fire- men ran to a big pole and down they went. The pole was the fast way to get to their trucks. Pickles could hear the trucks start up and rush off to the fire.

Pickles said to himself, “I must learn to do what the firemen do, I must learn to slide down the pole.”

He jumped and put his paws around the pole. Down he fell with a BUMP.

“Bumps or no bumps, I must try again,” said Pickles. Up the stairs he ran. Down the pole he came – and bumped. But by the time the firemen came back from the fire, Pickles could slide down the pole.

“What a wonderful cat you are!” said the firemen. The Chief did not say anything.

Pickles said to himself, “I must keep learning everything I can.” So he learned to jump up on one of the big trucks. And he learned to sit up straight on the seat while the truck raced to a fire.

“What a wonderful cat you are!” said the firemen. The Chief did not say anything.

Pickles said to himself, “Now I must learn to help the firemen with their work.”

At the next fire, he jumped down from the truck. He ran to a big hose, put his paws around it, and tried to help a fire- man shoot water at the flames.

“What a wonderful cat you are!” said the firemen. The Chief did not say anything.

The next day the Chief called all the firemen to his desk. Then he called for Pickles. Pickles did not know what was going to happen. He said to himself, “Maybe the Chief does not like the way I work. Maybe he wants to send me back to my old yard.” But Pickles went to the Chief.

At the Chief’s desk stood all the firemen – and Mrs. Goodkind! The Chief said to Pickles, “I have asked Mrs. Goodkind to come because she was your first friend. Pickles, jump up on my desk. I have something to say to you.”

Pickles jumped up on the desk and looked at the Chief. Out of the desk the Chief took – a little fire hat!

“Pickles,” said the Chief, “I have watched you at your work. You have worked hard. The time has come for you to know that you are now our Fire Cat.”

And with these words, the Chief put the little hat on Pickles’ head.

COPYRIGHT © 1960 BY ESTHER AVERILL. Copyright © renewed 1988. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Steig, William. Amos & Boris. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1971. (1971)

Shulevitz, Uri. The Treasure. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1978. (1978)

Cameron, Ann. The Stories Julian Tells. New York: Random House, 1981. (1981)

MacLachlan, Patricia. Sarah, Plain and Tall. New York: HarperCollins, 1985. (1985) From Chapter I

“Did Mama sing every day?” asked Caleb. “Every-single-day?” He sat close to the fire, his chin in his hand. It was dusk, and the dogs lay beside him on the warm hearthstones.

“Every-single-day,” I told him for the second time this week. For the twentieth time this month. The hundredth time this year? And the past few years?

“And did Papa sing, too?”

“Yes. Papa sang, too. Don’t get so close, Caleb. You’ll heat up.”

 

 

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He pushed his chair back. It made a hollow scraping sound on the hearthstones. And the dogs stirred. Lottie, small and black, wagged her tail and lifted her head. Nick slept on.

I turned the bread dough over and over on the marble slab on the kitchen table.

“Well, Papa doesn’t sing anymore,” said Caleb very softly. A log broke apart and crackled in the fireplace. He looked up at me. “What did I look like when I was born?”

“You didn’t have any clothes on,” I told him.

“I know that,” he said.

“You looked like this.” I held the bread dough up in a round pale ball.

“I had hair,” said Caleb seriously.

“Not enough to talk about,” I said.

“And she named me Caleb,” he went on, filling in the old familiar story.

“I would have named you Troublesome,” I said, making Caleb smile.

“And Mama handed me to you in the yellow blanket and said…” He waited for me to finish the story. “And said…?”

I sighed. “And Mama said. ‘Isn’t he beautiful, Anna?’”

“And I was,” Caleb finished.

Caleb thought the story was over, and I didn’t tell him what I had really thought. He was homely and plain, and he had a terrible holler and a horrid smell. But these were not the worst of him. Mama died the next morning. That was the worst thing about Caleb.

“Isn’t he beautiful, Anna?” her last words to me. I had gone to bed thinking how wretched he looked. And I forgot to say good night.

I wiped my hands on my apron and went to the window. Outside, the prairie reached out and touched the places where the sky came down. Though the winter was nearly over, there were patches of snow everywhere. I looked at the long dirt road that crawled across the plains, remembering the morning that Mama had died, cruel and sunny. They had come for her in a wagon and taken her away to be buried. And then the cousins and aunts and uncles had come and tried to fill up the house. But they couldn’t.

Slowly, one by one, they left. And then the days seemed long and dark like winter days, even though it wasn’t winter. And Papa didn’t sing.

COPYRIGHT © 1985 BY PATRICIA MACLACHLAN. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Rylant, Cynthia. Henry and Mudge: The First Book of Their Adventures. Illustrated by Suçie Stevenson. New York: Atheneum, 1996. (1987) From “Henry and Mudge”

Every day when Henry woke up, he saw Mudge’s big head. And every day when Mudge woke up, he saw Henry’s small face.

They ate breakfast at the same time; they ate supper at the same time.

And when Henry was at school, Mudge just lay around and waited. Mudge never went for a walk without Henry again. And Henry never worried that Mudge would leave.

Because sometimes, in their dreams, they saw long silent roads, big wide fields, deep streams, and pine trees.

In those dreams, Mudge was alone and Henry was alone. So when Mudge woke up and knew Henry was with him, he remembered the dream and stayed closer.

And when Henry woke up and knew Mudge was with him, he remembered the dream

and the looking and the calling and the fear and he knew he would never lose Mudge again.

 

 

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Reprinted with the permission of Atheneum Books for Young Readers, an imprint of Simon & Schuster Children’s Pub- lishing Division from HENRY AND MUDGE: The First Book by Cynthia Rylant. Text copyright © 1987 Cynthia Rylant.

Stevens, Janet. Tops and Bottoms. New York: Harcourt, 1985. (1995)

Once upon a time there lived a very lazy bear who had lots of money and lots of land. His father had been a hard worker and a smart business bear, and he had given all of his wealth to his son.

But all Bear wanted to do was sleep.

Not far down the road lived a hare. Although Hare was clever, he sometimes got into trouble. He had once owned land, too, but now he had nothing. He had lost a risky bet with a tortoise and had sold off all of his land to Bear to pay off the debt.

Hare and his family were in very bad shape.

“The children are so hungry Father Hare! We must think of something!” Mrs. Hare cried one day. So Hare and Mrs. Hare put their heads together and cooked up a plan.

[…]

Bear stared at his pile. “But, Hare, all the best parts are in your half!”

“You chose the tops, Bear,” Hare said.

“Now, Hare, you’ve tricked me. You plant this field again—and this season I want the bottoms!”

Hare agreed. “It’s a done deal, Bear.”

LaMarche, Jim. The Raft. New York: HarperCollins, 2000. (2000)

Somehow, on the river, it seemed like summer would never end. But of course it did.

On my last day, I got up extra early and crept down to the dock. The air was cool and a low pearly fog hung over the river. I untied the raft and quietly drifted downstream.

Ahead of me, through the fog, I saw two deer moving across the river, a doe and a fawn. When they reached the shore, the doe leaped easily up the steep bank, then turned to wait for her baby. But the fawn was in trouble. It kept slipping down the muddy bank, The doe returned to the water to help, but the more the fawn struggled, the deeper it got stuck in the mud.

I pushed off the river bottom and drove the raft hard onto the muddy bank, startling the doe. Then I dropped into the water. I was ankle-deep in mud.

You’re okay,” I whispered to the fawn, praying that the raft would calm it. “I won’t hurt you.”

Gradually the fawn stopped struggling, as if it understood that I was there to help. I put my arms around it and pulled. It barely moved. I pulled again, then again. Slowly the fawn eased out of the mud, and finally it was free. Carefully I carried the fawn up the bank to its mother.

Then, quietly, I returned to the raft. From there I watched the doe nuzzle and clean her baby, and I knew what I had to do. I pulled the stub of a crayon from my pocket, and drew the fawn, in all its wildness, onto the old gray boards of the raft. When I had finished, I knew it was just right.

Text copyright © 2000 Jim LaMarche. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Rylant, Cynthia. Poppleton in Winter. Illustrated by Mark Teague. New York: Scholastic, 2001. (2001) From “The Sleigh Ride”

It was a very snowy day and Poppleton felt like a sleigh ride. He called his friend Cherry Sue.

“Would you like to go for a sleigh ride?” Poppleton asked.

“Sorry, Poppleton, I’m making cookies,” said Cherry Sue.

 

 

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Poppleton called his friend Hudson.

“Would you like to go for a sleigh ride?” Poppleton asked.

“Sorry,” said Hudson, “I’m baking a cake.”

Poppleton called his friend Fillmore.

“Would you like to go for a sleigh ride?” Poppleton asked.

“Sorry,” said Fillmore. “I’m stirring some fudge.”

Poppleton was disappointed. He couldn’t find one friend for a sleigh ride. And besides that, they were all making such good things to eat!

He sat in front of his window, feeling very sorry for himself. Suddenly the doorbell rang.

“SURPRISE!”

There stood all of Poppleton’s friends! With cookies and cake and fudge and presents! “HAPPY BIRTHDAY, POPPLE- TON!”

He had forgotten his own birthday! Everyone ate and laughed and played games with Poppleton.

Then, just before midnight, they all took him on a sleigh ride.

The moon was full and white. The stars twinkled. The owls hooted in the trees. Over the snow went the sleigh filled with Poppleton and all of his friends.

Poppleton didn’t even make a birthday wish. He had everything already.

From POPPLETON IN WINTER by Cynthia Rylant. Scholastic Inc./Blue Sky Press. Copyright © 2001 by Cynthia Rylant. Used by permission.

Rylant, Cynthia. The Lighthouse Family: The Storm. Illustrated by Preston McDaniels. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002. (2002)

In a lonely lighthouse, far from city and town, far from the comfort of friends, lived a kindhearted cat named Pandora.

She had been living in this lighthouse all alone for four long years, and it was beginning to wear. She found herself sighing long, deep, lonely sighs. She sat on the rocks overlooking the waves far too long. Sometimes her nose got a sunburn.

And at night, when she tried to read by the lantern light, her mind wandered and she would think for hours on her childhood when she had friends and company.

Why did Pandora accept this lonely lighthouse life?

Because a lighthouse had once saved her.

Reprinted with the permission of Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers, an imprint of Simon & Schuster Chil- dren’s Publishing Division from THE LIGHTHOUSE FAMILY: THE STORM by Cynthia Rylant. Text Copyright © 2002 Cynthia Rylant.

Osborne, Mary Pope. The One-Eyed Giant (Book One of Tales from the Odyssey). New York: Disney Hyperion, 2002. (2002) From Chapter Five: “The One-Eyed Giant”

A hideous giant lumbered into the clearing. He carried nearly half a forest’s worth of wood on his back. His monstrous head jutted from his body like a shaggy mountain peak. A single eye bulged in the center of his forehead.

The monster was Polyphemus. He was the most savage of all the Cyclopes, a race of fierce one-eyed giants who lived without laws or leader. The Cyclopes were ruthless creatures who were known to capture and devour any sailors who happened near their shores.

 

 

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Polyphemus threw down his pile of wood. As it crashed to the ground, Odysseus and his men fled to the darkest corners of the cave.

Unaware that the Greeks were hiding inside, Polyphemus drove his animals into the cave. Then he rolled a huge boul- der over its mouth to block out the light of day and imprison his flock inside.

Twenty-four wagons could not haul that rock away, Odysseus thought desperately. How will we escape this monster?

Odysseus’ men trembled with terror as the giant made a small fire and milked his goats in the shadowy light. His milk- ing done, he threw more wood on his fire. The flame blazed brightly, lighting up the corners of the cave where Odys- seus and his men were hiding.

“What’s this? Who are you? From where do you come?” the giant boomed. He glared at the Greeks with his single eye. “Are you pirates who steal the treasure of others?”

Odysseus’ men were frozen with terror. But Odysseus hid his own fear and stepped toward the monster.

“We are not pirates,” he said, “We are Greeks blown off course by storm winds. Will you offer us the gift of hospitality like a good host? If you do, mighty Zeus, king of the gods, will be pleased. Zeus is the guardian of all strangers.”

“Fool!” the giant growled. “Who are you to tell me to please Zeus? I am a son of Poseidon, god of the seas! I am not afraid of Zeus!”

Odysseus men cowered in fear.

Polyphemus moved closer to Odysseus. He spoke in a soft, terrible voice. “But tell me, stranger, where is your ship? Near or far from shore?”

Odysseus knew Polyphemus was trying to trap him. “Our ship was destroyed in the storm,” he lied. “It was dashed against the rocks. With these good men I escaped, I ask you again, will you welcome us?”

From Mary Pope Osborne’s the One Eyed Giant © 2002 by Mary Pope Osborne. Reprinted by permission of Disney∙Hyperion, an imprint of Disney Book Group LLC, All Rights Reserved.

Silverman, Erica. Cowgirl Kate and Cocoa. Illustrated by Betsy Lewin. Orlando: Harcourt, 2005. (2005) From Chapter 1: “A Story for Cocoa”

Cowgirl Kate rode her horse, Cocoa, out to the pasture.

“It’s time to herd cows,” said Cowgirl Kate.

“I am thirsty,” said Cocoa.

He stopped at the creek and took a drink.

“Are you ready now?” asked Cowgirl Kate.

“No,” said Cocoa. “Now I am hungry.”

Cowgirl Kate gave him an apple. He ate it in one bite. Then he sniffed the saddlebag.

Cowgirl Kate gave him another apple. He ate that in one bite, too. He sniffed the saddlebag again.

“You are a pig,” said Cowgirl Kate.

“No,” said Cocoa. “I am a horse.”

“A cowhorse?” she asked.

“Of course,” he said.

“But a cowhorse herds cows,” she said.

“Just now, I am too full,” he said.

 

 

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Cowgirl Kate smiled. “Then I will tell you a story.”

“Once there was a cowgirl who needed a cowhorse. She went to a ranch and saw lots and lots of horses. Then she saw a horse whose coat was the color of chocolate. His tail and mane were the color of caramel. ‘Yum,’ said the cow- girl, ‘you are the colors of my favorite candy.’ The horse looked at her. He sniffed her.”

“’Are you a real cowgirl?’ he asked. ‘I am a cowgirl from the boots up,’ she said. ‘Well, I am a cowhorse from the mane down,’ he said. ‘Will you work hard every day?’ the cowgirl asked.. The horse raised his head high. ‘Of course,’ he said, ‘a cowhorse always does his job.’ ‘At last,’ said the cowgirl, ‘I have found my horse.’”

“That was a good story,” said Cocoa. He raised his head high. “And now I am ready to herd cows.”

Excerpted from COWGIRL KATE AND COCOA By Erica Silverman. Text copyright © 2005 by Erica Silverman. Used by Permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Poetry

Dickinson, Emily. “Autumn.” The Compete Poems of Emily Dickinson. Boston: Little, Brown, 1960. (1893)

The morns are meeker than they were. The nuts are getting brown; The berry’s cheek is plumper, The rose is out of town.

The maple wears a gayer scarf, The field a scarlet gown. Lest I should be old-fashioned, I’ll put a trinket on.

Rossetti, Christina. “Who Has Seen the Wind?” Sing a Song of Popcorn: Every Child’s Book of Poems. Selected by Beatrice Schenk de Regniers et al. Illustrated by Marcia Brown et al. New York: Scholastic, 1988. (1893)

Who has seen the wind? Neither I nor you; But when the leaves hang trembling The wind is passing through.

Who has seen the wind? Neither you nor I; But when the trees bow down their heads The wind is passing by.

Millay, Edna St. Vincent. “Afternoon on a Hill.” The Selected Poetry of Edna St. Vincent Millay. Edited by Nancy Milford. New York: Modern Library, 2001. (1917)

I will be the gladdest thing Under the sun! I will touch a hundred flowers And not pick one.

I will look at cliffs and clouds With quiet eyes, Watch the wind bow down the grass, And the grass rise.

And when lights begin to show Up from the town, I will mark which must be mine, And then start down!

 

 

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Frost, Robert. “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening.” The Poetry of Robert Frost: The Collected Poems. Edited by Edward Connery Lathem. New York: Henry Holt, 1979. (1923)

Field, Rachel. “Something Told the Wild Geese.” Branches Green. New York: Macmillan, 1934. (1934)

Hughes, Langston. “Grandpa’s Stories.” The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. New York: Knopf, 1994. (1958)

Jarrell, Randall. “A Bat Is Born.” The Bat Poet. New York: HarperCollins, 1964. (1964)

A bat is born Naked and blind and pale. His mother makes a pocket of her tail And catches him. He clings to her long fur By his thumbs and toes and teeth. And them the mother dances through the night Doubling and looping, soaring, somersaulting— Her baby hangs on underneath. All night, in happiness, she hunts and flies Her sharp cries Like shining needlepoints of sound Go out into the night and, echoing back, Tell her what they have touched. She hears how far it is, how big it is, Which way it’s going: She lives by hearing. The mother eats the moths and gnats she catches In full flight; in full flight

The mother drinks the water of the pond She skims across. Her baby hangs on tight. Her baby drinks the milk she makes him In moonlight or starlight, in mid-air. Their single shadow, printed on the moon Or fluttering across the stars, Whirls on all night; at daybreak The tired mother flaps home to her rafter. The others are all there. They hang themselves up by their toes, They wrap themselves in their brown wings. Bunched upside down, they sleep in air. Their sharp ears, their sharp teeth, their quick sharp faces Are dull and slow and mild. All the bright day, as the mother sleeps, She folds her wings about her sleeping child.

Copyright © 1964 BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY RENEWED TEXT COPYRIGHT © 1992 BY MARY JERRELL. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Giovanni, Nikki. “Knoxville, Tennessee.” Sing a Song of Popcorn: Every Child’s Book of Poems. Selected by Beatrice Schenk de Regniers et al. Illustrated by Marcia Brown et al. New York: Scholastic, 1988. (1968)

I always like summer best you can eat fresh corn from daddy’s garden and okra and greens and cabbage and lots of barbecue and buttermilk

 

 

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and homemade ice-cream at the church picnic

and listen to gospel music outside at the church homecoming and you go to the mountains with your grandmother and go barefooted and be warm all the time not only when you go to bed and sleep

COPYRIGHT © 1968 BY Nikki Giovanni. Used by permission.

Merriam, Eve. “Weather.” Sing a Song of Popcorn: Every Child’s Book of Poems. Selected by Beatrice Schenk de Regniers et al. Illustrated by Marcia Brown et al. New York: Scholastic, 1988. (1969)

Soto, Gary. “Eating While Reading.” The 20th Century Children’s Poetry Treasury. Selected by Jack Prelutsky. Illustrated by Meilo So. New York: Knopf, 1999. (1995)

What is better Than this book And the churn of candy In your mouth, Or the balloon of bubble gum, Or the crack of sunflower seeds, Or the swig of soda, Or the twist of beef jerky, Or the slow slither Of snow cone syrup Running down your arms?

What is better than This sweet dance On the tongue, And this book That pulls you in? It yells, “Over here!” And you hurry along With a red, sticky face.

“Eating While Reading” from CANTO FAMILIAR by Gary Soto. Copyright © 1995 by Gary Soto. Used by Permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Read-Aloud Stories

Kipling, Rudyard. “How the Camel Got His Hump.” Just So Stories. New York: Puffin, 2008. (1902)

Now this is the next tale, and it tells how the Camel got his big hump.

In the beginning of years, when the world was so new and all, and the Animals were just beginning to work for Man, there was a Camel, and he lived in the middle of a Howling Desert because he did not want to work; and besides, he was a Howler himself. So he ate sticks and thorns and tamarisks and milkweed and prickles, most ‘scruciating idle; and when anybody spoke to him he said “Humph!” Just “Humph!” and no more.

 

 

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Presently the Horse came to him on Monday morning, with a saddle on his back and a bit in his mouth, and said, “Camel, O Camel, come out and trot like the rest of us.”

“Humph!” said the Camel; and the Horse went away and told the Man.

Presently the Dog came to him, with a stick in his mouth, and said, “Camel, O Camel, come and fetch and carry like the rest of us.”

“Humph !” said the Camel; and the Dog went away and told the Man.

Presently the Ox came to him, with the yoke on his neck and said, “Camel, O Camel, come and plough like the rest of us.”

“Humph!” said the Camel; and the Ox went away and told the Man.

At the end of the day the Man called the Horse and the Dog and the Ox together, and said, “Three, O Three, I’m very sorry for you (with the world so new-and-all); but that Humph-thing in the Desert can’t work, or he would have been here by now, so I am going to leave him alone, and you must work double-time to make up for it.”

That made the Three very angry (with the world so new-and-all), and they held a palaver, and an indaba, and a punchayet, and a pow-wow on the edge of the Desert; and the Camel came chewing milkweed most ’scruciating idle, and laughed at them. Then he said “Humph!” and went away again.

Presently there came along the Djinn in charge of All Deserts, rolling in a cloud of dust (Djinns always travel that way because it is Magic), and he stopped to palaver and pow-wow with the Three.

“Djinn of All Deserts,” said the Horse, “is it right for any one to be idle, with the world so new-and-all?”

“Certainly not,” said the Djinn.

“Well,” said the Horse, “there’s a thing in the middle of your Howling Desert (and he’s a Howler himself) with a long neck and long legs, and he hasn’t done a stroke of work since Monday morning. He won’t trot.”

“Whew!” said the Djinn, whistling, “that’s my Camel, for all the gold in Arabia! What does he say about it?”

“He says ‘Humph!’” said the Dog; “and he won’t fetch and carry.”

“Does he say anything else?”

“Only ‘Humph!’; and he won’t plough,” said the Ox.

“Very good,” said the Djinn. “I’ll humph him if you will kindly wait a minute.”

Thurber, James. The Thirteen Clocks. Illustrated by Marc Simont. New York: New York Review Children’s Collection, 2008. (1950) From Chapter 1

Once upon a time, in a gloomy castle on a lonely hill, where there were thirteen clocks that wouldn’t go, there lived a cold aggressive Duke, and his niece, the Princess Saralinda. She was warm in every wind and weather, but he was always cold. His hands were as cold as his smile and almost as cold as his heart. He wore gloves when he was asleep, and he wore gloves when he was awake, which made it difficult for him to pick up pins or coins or kernels of nuts, or to tear the wings from nightingales. He was six feet four, and forty-six, and even colder than he thought he was. One eye wore a velvet patch; the other glittered through a monocle, which made half of his body seem closer to you than the other half. He had lost one eye when he was twelve, for he was fond of peering into nests and lairs in search of birds and animals to maul. One afternoon, a mother shrike had mauled him first. His nights were spent in evil dreams, and his days were given to wicked schemes.

Wickedly scheming, he would limp and cackle through the cold corridors of the castle, planning new impossible feats for the suitors of Saralinda to perform. He did not wish to give her hand in marriage, since her hand was the only warm hand in the castle. Even the hands of his watch and the hands of all the thirteen clocks were frozen. They had all frozen at the same time, on a snowy night, seven years before, and after that it was always ten to five in the castle. Travelers and mariners would look up at the gloomy castle on the lonely hill and say, “Time lies frozen there. It’s always Then. It’s never Now.”

 

 

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White, E. B. Charlotte’s Web. Illustrated by Garth Williams. New York: HarperCollins, 2001. (1952) From Chapter 1: “Before Breakfast”

“Where’s Papa going with that ax?” said Fern to her mother as they were setting the table for breakfast.

“Out to the hoghouse,” replied Mrs. Arable. “Some pigs were born last night.”

“I don’t see why he needs an ax,” continued Fern, who was only eight.

“Well,” said her mother, “one of the pigs is a runt. It’s very small and weak, and it will never amount to anything. So your father has decided to do away with it.”

“Do away with it?” shrieked Fern. “You mean kill it? Just because it’s smaller than the others?”

Mrs. Arable put a pitcher of cream on the table. “Don’t yell, Fern!” she said. “Your father is right. The pig would prob- ably die anyway.”

Fern pushed a chair out of the way and ran outdoors. The grass was wet and the earth smelled of springtime. Fern’s sneakers were sopping by the time she caught up with her father.

“Please don’t kill it!” she sobbed. “It’s unfair.” Mr. Arable stopped walking.

“Fern,” he said gently, “you will have to learn to control yourself.”

“Control myself?” yelled Fern. “This is a matter of life and death, and you talk about controlling myself.”

Tears ran down her cheeks and she took hold of the ax and tried to pull it out of her father’s hand.

“Fern,” said Mr. Arable, “I know more about raising a litter of pigs than you do. A weakling makes trouble. Now run along!”

“But it’s unfair,” cried Fern. “The pig couldn’t help being born small, could it? If I had been very small at birth, would you have killed me?”

Mr. Arable smiled. “Certainly not,” he said, looking down at his daughter with love. “But this is different. A little girl is one thing, a little runty pig is another.”

“I see no difference,” replied Fern, still hanging on to the ax. “This is the most terrible case of injustice I ever heard of.”

Selden, George. The Cricket in Times Square. Illustrated by Garth Williams. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1960. (1960) From Chapter Three: “Chester”

Tucker Mouse had been watching the Bellinis and listening to what they said. Next to scrounging, eaves-dropping on human beings was what he enjoyed most. That was one of the reasons he lived in the Times Square subway station. As soon as the family disappeared, he darted out across the floor and scooted up to the newsstand. At one side the boards had separated and there was a wide space he could jump through. He’d been in a few times before—just exploring. For a moment he stood under the three-legged stool, letting his eyes get used to the darkness. Then he jumped up on it.

“Psst!” he whispered. “Hey, you up there—are you awake?”

There was no answer.

“Psst! Psst! Hey!” Tucker whispered again, louder this time.

From the shelf above came a scuffling, like little feet feeling their way to the edge. “Who is that going ‘psst’?” said a voice.

“It’s me,” said Tucker. “Down here on the stool.”

A black head, with two shiny black eyes, peered down at him. “Who are you?”

“A mouse,” said Tucker. “Who are you?”

 

 

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“I’m Chester Cricket, said the cricket. He had a high, musical voice. Everything he said seemed spoken in an unheard melody.

“My name’s Tucker,” said Tucker Mouse. “Can I come up?”

“I guess so,” said Chester Cricket. “This isn’t my house anyway.”

Tucker jumped up beside the cricket and looked him all over. “A cricket,” he said admiringly. “So you’re a cricket. I never saw one before.”

I’ve seen mice before,” the cricket said. “I knew quite a few back in Connecticut.”

“Is that where you’re from?” asked Tucker.

“Yes,” said Chester. “I guess I’ll never see it again,” he added wistfully.

Babbitt, Natalie. The Search for Delicious. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1969. (1969) From the Prologue

There was a time once when the earth was still very young, a time some call the oldest days. This was long before there were any people about to dig parts of it up and cut parts of it off. People came along much later, building their towns and castles (which nearly always fell down after a while) and plaguing each other with quarrels and supper par- ties. The creatures who lived on earth in that early time stayed each in his own place and kept it beautiful. There were dwarfs in the mountains, woldwellers in the forests, mermaids in the lakes, and, of course, winds in the air.

There was one particular spot on the earth where a ring of mountains enclosed a very dry and dusty place. There were winds and dwarfs there, but no mermaids because there weren’t any lakes, and there were no woldwellers either because forests couldn’t grow in so dry a place.

Then a remarkable thing happened. Up in the mountains one day a dwarf was poking about with a sharp tool, looking for a good spot to begin mining. He poked and poked until he had made a very deep hole in the earth. Then he poked again and clear spring water came spurting up in the hole. He hurried in great excitement to tell the other dwarfs and they all came running to see the water. They were so pleased that they built over it a fine house of heavy stones and they made a special door out of a flat rock and balanced it in its place very carefully on carved hinges. Then one of them made a whistle out of a small stone which blew a certain very high note tuned to just the right warble so that when you blew it, the door of the rock house would open, and when you blew it again, the door would shut. They took turns being in charge of the whistle and they worked hard to keep the spring clean and beautiful.

Curtis, Christopher Paul. Bud, Not Buddy. New York: Random House, 1999. (1999) (Also listed as a narrative for grades 4–5) From Chapter 1

Here we go again. We were all standing in line waiting for breakfast when one of the caseworkers came in and tap- tap-taped down the line. Uh-oh, this meant bad news, either they’d found a foster home for somebody or somebody was about to get paddled. All the kids watched the woman as she moved along the line, her high-heeled shoes sounding like little fire-crackers going off on the wooden floor.

Shoot! She stopped at me and said, “Are you Buddy Caldwell?”

I said, “It’s Bud, not Buddy, ma’am.”

She put her hand on my shoulder and took me out of the line. Then she pulled Jerry, one of the littler boys, over. “Aren’t you Jerry Clark?” He nodded.

“Boys, good news! Now that the school year has ended, you both have been accepted in new temporary-care homes starting this afternoon!”

Jerry asked the same thing I was thinking, “Together?”

She said, “Why no, Jerry, you’ll be in a family with three little girls…”

Jerry looked like he’d just found out they were going to dip him in a pot of boiling milk.

“…and Bud…” She looked at some papers she was holding. “Oh, yes, the Amoses, you’ll be with Mr. and Mrs. Amos and their son, who’s twelve years old, that makes him just two years older than you, doesn’t it, Bud?”

 

 

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Yes, ma’am.”

She said, “I’m sure you’ll both be very happy.”

Me and Jerry looked at each other.

The woman said, “Now, now, boys, no need to look so glum, I know you don’t understand what it means, but there’s a depression going on all over this country. People can’t find jobs and these are very, very difficult times for everybody. We’ve been lucky enough to find two wonderful families who’ve opened their doors for you. I think it’s best that we show our new foster families that we’re very…”

She dragged out the word very, waiting for us to finish her sentence for her.

Jerry said, “Cheerful, helpful and grateful.” I moved my lips and mumbled.

She smiled and said, “Unfortunately, you won’t have time for breakfast. I’ll have a couple of pieces of fruit put in a bag. In the meantime go to the sleep room and strip your beds and gather all of your things.”

Here we go again. I felt like I was walking in my sleep as I followed Jerry back to the room where all the boys’ beds were jim-jammed together. This was the third foster home I was going to and I’m used to packing up and leaving, but it still surprises me that there are always a few seconds, right after they tell you you’ve got to go, when my nose gets all runny and my throat gets all choky and my eyes get all sting-y. But the tears coming out doesn’t happen to me anymore, I don’t know when it first happened, but is seems like my eyes don’t cry anymore.

Say, Allen. The Sign Painter. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000. (2000)

“Are you lost, son?” the man asked.

“Yes . . . I mean no. I need a job,” the young man stammered looking not much more than a boy.

“Tell me what you can do.”

“I can paint.”

“Ah, an artist. Are you good at faces?”

“I think so.”

“Can you paint them big?”

“Yes.”

“All right, I’m interested.” The man put down the brush, and said, “Come with me.”

Excerpt from THE SIGN PAINTER by Allen Say. Copyright © 2000 by Allen Say. Used by Permission of Houghton Mif- flin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Read-Aloud Poetry

Lear, Edward. “The Jumblies.” Sing a Song of Popcorn: Every Child’s Book of Poems. Selected by Beatrice Schenk de Regniers et al. Illustrated by Marcia Brown et al. New York: Scholastic, 1988. (1871)

They went to sea in a sieve, they did; In a sieve they went to sea: In spite of all their friends could say, On a winter’s morn, on a stormy day, In a sieve they went to sea. And when the sieve turned round and round, And every one cried, “You’ll all be drowned!”

 

 

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They called aloud, “Our sieve ain’t big; But we don’t care a button, we don’t care a fig: In a sieve we’ll go to sea!”

Far and few, far and few, Are the lands where the Jumblies live: Their heads are green, and their hands are blue And they went to sea in a sieve.

They sailed away in a sieve, they did, In a sieve they sailed so fast, With only a beautiful pea-green veil Tied with a ribbon, by way of a sail, To a small tobacco-pipe mast. And every one said who saw them go, “Oh! won’t they be soon upset, you know? For the sky is dark, and the voyage is long; And, happen what may, it’s extremely wrong In a sieve to sail so fast.”

Far and few, far and few, Are the lands where the Jumblies live: Their heads are green, and their hands are blue And they went to sea in a sieve.

The water it soon came in, it did; The water it soon came in: So, to keep them dry, they wrapped their feet In a pinky paper all folded neat; And they fastened it down with a pin. And they passed the night in a crockery-jar; And each of them said, “How wise we are! Though the sky be dark, and the voyage be long, Yet we never can think we were rash or wrong, While round in our sieve we spin.”

Far and few, far and few, Are the lands where the Jumblies live: Their heads are green, and their hands are blue And they went to sea in a sieve.

And all night long they sailed away; And when the sun went down, They whistled and warbled a moony song To the echoing sound of a coppery gong, In the shade of the mountains brown.” O Timballoo! How happy we are When we live in a sieve and a crockery-jar! And all night long, in the moonlight pale, We sail away with a pea-green sail In the shade of the mountains brown

Far and few, far and few, Are the lands where the Jumblies live: Their heads are green, and their hands are blue And they went to sea in a sieve.

They sailed to the Western Sea, they did,— To a land all covered with trees: And they bought an owl, and a useful cart, And a pound of rice, and a cranberry-tart, And a hive of silvery bees; And they bought a pig, and some green jackdaws, And a lovely monkey with lollipop paws, And forty bottles of ring-bo-ree, And no end of Stilton cheese.

 

 

Common Core State StandardS for engliSh language artS & literaCy in hiStory/SoCial StudieS, SCienCe, and teChniCal SubjeCtS a

p p

e n

d ix

b | 5

1

Far and few, far and few, Are the lands where the Jumblies live: Their heads are green, and their hands are blue And they went to sea in a sieve.

And in twenty years they all came back,— In twenty years or more; And every one said, “How tall they’ve grown! For they’ve been to the Lakes, and the Torrible Zone, And the hills of the Chankly Bore. “And they drank their health, and gave them a feast Of dumplings made of beautiful yeast; And every one said, “If we only live, We, too, will go to sea in a sieve, To the hills of the Chankly Bore.

Far and few, far and few, Are the lands where the Jumblies live: Their heads are green, and their hands are blue And they went to sea in a sieve.

Browning, Robert. The Pied Piper of Hamelin. Illustrated by Kate Greenaway. New York: Knopf, 1993. (1888)

Hamelin Town’s in Brunswick, By famous Hanover city; The river Weser, deep and wide, Washes its wall on the southern side; A pleasanter spot you never spied; But, when begins my ditty, Almost five hundred years ago, To see the townsfolk suffer so From vermin, was a pity.

Rats! They fought the dogs and killed the cats, And bit the babies in the cradles, And ate the cheeses out of the vats. And licked the soup from the cook’s own ladles, Split open the kegs of salted sprats, Made nests inside men’s Sunday hats, And even spoiled the women’s chats, By drowning their speaking With shrieking and squeaking In fifty different sharps and flats.

At last the people in a body To the Town Hall came flocking: “Tis clear,” cried they, “our Mayor’s a noddy; And as for our Corporation—shocking To think we buy gowns lined with ermine For dolts that can’t or won’t determine What’s best to rid us of our vermin! You hope, because you’re old and obese, To find in the furry civic robe ease? Rouse up, sirs! Give your brains a racking To find the remedy we’re lacking, Or, sure as fate, we’ll send you packing!” At this the Mayor and Corporation Quaked with a mighty consternation.

 

 

Common Core State StandardS for engliSh language artS & literaCy in hiStory/SoCial StudieS, SCienCe, and teChniCal SubjeCtS a

p p

e n

d ix

b | 5

2

Johnson, Georgia Douglas. “Your World.” Words with Wings: A Treasury of African-American Poetry and Art. Selected by Belinda Rochelle. New York: HarperCollins, 2001. (1918)

Your world is as big as you make it. I know, for I used to abide In the narrowest nest in a corner, My wings pressing close to my side. But I sighted the distant horizon Where the skyline encircled the sea And I throbbed with a burning desire To travel this immensity. I battered the cordons around me And cradled my wings on the breeze, Then soared to the uttermost reaches With rapture, with power, with ease!

Eliot, T. S. “The Song of the Jellicles.” Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats. Illustrated by Edward Gorey. Orlando: Harcourt, 1982. (1939)

Fleischman, Paul. “Fireflies.” Joyful Noise: Poems for Two Voices. Illustrated by Eric Beddows. New York: HarperCollins, 1988. (1988)

Light Light is the ink we use Night Night is our parchment We’re fireflies fireflies flickering flitting flashing fireflies glimmering fireflies gleaming glowing Insect calligraphers Insect calligraphers practicing penmanship copying sentences Six-legged scribblers Six-legged scribblers of vanishing messages, fleeting graffiti Fine artists in flight Fine artists in flight adding dabs of light bright brush strokes Signing the June nights Signing the June nights as if they were paintings as if they were paintings We’re flickering fireflies fireflies flickering fireflies. fireflies.

TEXT COPYRIGHT © 1988 BY PAUL FLEISCHMAN. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Sample Performance Tasks for Stories and Poetry

• Students ask and answer questions regarding the plot of Patricia MacLachlan’s Sarah, Plain and Tall, explicitly referring to the book to form the basis for their answers. [RL.3.1]

 

 

Common Core State StandardS for engliSh language artS & literaCy in hiStory/SoCial StudieS, SCienCe, and teChniCal SubjeCtS a

p p

e n

d ix

b | 5

3

• Students explain how Mark Teague’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed in Cynthia Rylant’s Poppleton in Winter to create the mood and emphasize aspects of characters and setting in the story. [RL.3.7]

• Students read fables and folktales from diverse cultures that represent various origin tales, such as Rudyard Kipling’s “How the Camel Got His Hump” and Natalie Babbitt’s The Search for Delicious, and paraphrase their central message, lesson, or moral. [RL.2.2]

• Students describe the overall story structure of The Thirteen Clocks by James Thurber, describing how the interactions of the characters of the Duke and Princess Saralinda introduce the beginning of the story and how the suspenseful plot comes to an end. [RL.2.5]

• When discussing E. B. White’s book Charlotte’s Web, students distinguish their own point of view regarding Wilbur the Pig from that of Fern Arable as well as from that of the narrator. [RL.3.6]

• Students describe how the character of Bud in Christopher Paul Curtis’ story Bud, Not Buddy responds to a major event in his life of being placed in a foster home. [RL.2.3]

• Students read Paul Fleischman’s poem “Fireflies,” determining the meaning of words and phrases in the poem, particularly focusing on identifying his use of nonliteral language (e.g., “light is the ink we use”) and talking about how it suggests meaning. [RL.3.4]

Informational Texts

Aliki. A Medieval Feast. New York: HarperCollins, 1986. (1983)

It was announced from the palace that the King would soon make a long journey.

On the way to his destination, the King and his party would spend a few nights at Camdenton Manor. The lord of the manor knew what this meant. The king traveled with his Queen, his knights, squires, and other members of his court. There could be a hundred mouths to feed!

Preparations for the visit began at once. The lord and lady of the manor had their serfs to help them. The serfs lived in huts provided for them on the lord’s estate, each with its own plot of land. In return, they were bound to serve the lord. They farmed his land, managed his manor house, and if there was a war, they had to go to battle with the lord and the King.

But now they prepared.

The manor had its own church, which was attended by everyone on the estate.

The manor house had to be cleaned, the rooms readied, tents set up for the horsemen, fields fenced for the horses. And above all, provisions had to be gathered for the great feast.

The Royal Suite was redecorated.

Silk was spun, new fabric was woven.

Science, and Technical Subjects. Select one exemplar text from a grade band of your choosing. Unpack one standard from that grade level, and write an instructional objective that includes a reference to the selected exemplar text. Use the following resources:

 

  • Appendix B: Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks
  • Unpacking a Standard

 

https://www.mydigitalchalkboard.org/portal/default/Content/Viewer/Content?action=2&sciId=829

 

Make sure to refer to Chapter 3 of your text, additional resources and your own insights/experiences.

 

 

 

Please feel free to ask me any questions in regards to this DQ. Thank You!

 

Book: Hansen, C.B., Buczynski, S., & Puckett, K.S.  (2015). Curriculum and Instruction for the 21st Century. Bridgepoint Education.

 

 

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