Read Chapter 8 of the Easttom text, EncryptionPrimary topics…

Read Chapter 8 of the Easttom text, Encryption Primary topics: 1). Using the Web or other resources, write a brief paper about RSA, its history, its methodology, and where it is used. 2). Send a brief message (ten words minimum) using the Caesar Cypher.


RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) is a widely used encryption algorithm that was developed in 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. It is a public-key encryption algorithm, which means it uses two different keys – a public key for encryption and a private key for decryption. RSA is based on the mathematical problem of factoring large composite numbers, which has been proven to be computationally difficult.

The history of RSA dates back to the 1970s when Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman were working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). They aimed to develop a secure method of communication that could protect sensitive information in the emerging digital world. Their research led to the creation of RSA, which was the first practical public-key encryption algorithm.

The methodology behind RSA relies on the use of prime numbers and modular arithmetic. The algorithm works as follows:

1. Key Generation: First, two large prime numbers, p and q, are chosen. These primes are kept secret and are only known to the key generator. The product of p and q is denoted as N.

2. Public and Private Key Calculation: Two keys, a public key (e) and a private key (d), are computed. The public key is made publicly available, while the private key is kept secret. The public key consists of the modulus N and the exponent e, which is typically a small prime number such as 65537. The private key includes the modulus N and the exponent d, which is derived from the primes p and q.

3. Encryption: To encrypt a message, the sender uses the recipient’s public key. The message is transformed into a numerical value and raised to the power of e, modulo N. The resulting ciphertext is what is transmitted.

4. Decryption: The recipient, possessing the corresponding private key, applies it to the ciphertext. The ciphertext is raised to the power of d, modulo N, to obtain the original plaintext message.

RSA is one of the most widely used cryptographic algorithms and is employed in various applications and protocols. It is commonly used in secure communications, such as secure email (PGP), virtual private networks (VPNs), and secure socket layer (SSL) for secure web browsing. RSA is trusted for its security, efficiency, and scalability.

One of the primary advantages of RSA is that it allows secure encryption without the need for transmitting secret keys between parties. The decryption process relies on the possession and secrecy of the private key, which makes it difficult for unauthorized individuals to decrypt the ciphertext.

In conclusion, RSA is a fundamental encryption algorithm that plays a crucial role in securing digital communications. Its development marked a significant milestone in cryptography, enabling secure data transmission without the need for exchanging secret keys. With its strong security guarantees and widespread adoption, RSA continues to be a vital component in ensuring confidentiality and integrity in various applications.

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